by Evan Randolph


- Birth of Athena--wearing a helmet & bandishing a spear & shield, Athena emerges from the head of Zeus. Springing from the mind of God, she became known as Divine Wisdom.

Group E painter ( c. 540 BCE)- see footnote 1

Plato (429-348 BCE) states that the Goddess Athena is both "...a lover of war and a lover of wisdom..." (see Plato Timaeus 24d- --

- Creation of mankind---Athena breathes soul into man- See footnote 3

Sarcophagos 270 A.D., Musee Capitolina

Athena-- protector of humankind since Homeric times 2,700 years ago- See footnote 2

Homeric Hymn 11 To Athena
I begin to sing of Pallas Athena, the dread Protectress of the city,
who with Ares looks after matters of war, the plundering of cities, the battle-cry and the fray.
It is She who protects the people, wherever they might come or go.
Hail, Goddess, and give us good spirits and blessed favor!

Athena protected Odysseus in Homer's The Odyssey and many heroes in The Iliad

Palace Bridge, Schlossbrucke, Berlin, Germany- see footnote 4

- Athena protects cities (Athens & Rome, etc.). The Palladium, a small statue of Athena, was carried to Athens or Rome by Diomedes, and kept by the Vestal Virgins at the Temple of the Vestals, Rome ( circa 700 BC )

The Palladium being carried off from Troy to Athens or Rome by Diomedes- footnote 5

- 509BC- Athena/Minerva one of three members of Capitoline Triad set up in Rome
and throughout the Roman Empire (the Roman Trinity).

The Capitoline Triad consisted of the goddess Minerva (left), Jupiter (center), and his consort Juno (right)- see footnote 6
Dedication to the Capitoline triad from Vetera II, by a standard bearer of XXX Ulpia Traiana (Rheinisches Landesmuseum, Bonn)

- 438 BC- Athena's mammoth statue (42 feet high) placed in Parthenon, Athens

Athena holding 6' statue of Nike in right hand. Note serpent by shield on left. This full sized replica in Nashville, Tenn- see footnote 7

Evan Randolph standing below Athena in Nashville, Tenn. His Nike sneakers have lit up for the occasion.

-Athena "protected" Alexander the Great- after conquering much of the world in 325BC,
Alexander honors Athena (who protected him) with this gold coin (Alexander stater)-

Head of Athena on left, Victory on reverse side- see footnote 8

- 200BC--the Greek Septuagint Bible included the Wisdom texts (Proverbs, Wisdom of Solomon, etc.) The Wisdom texts featured Divine Wisdom (Athena) in Her role of "protecting" mankind and assisting their leaders (such as Adam and the prophets Noah, Abraham, Jacob, Joseph and Moses).

-Athena/Divine Wisdom "protected" Constantine during his battle of Milvan Bridge in 313CE, here is how his historian Eusebius describes his victory:
Thus, as in the time of Moses himself and of the ancient God-beloved race of Hebrews, "he cast Pharaoh's chariots and host into the sea, and overwhelmed his chosen charioteers in the Red Sea, and covered them with the flood," in the same way Maxentius also with his soldiers and body-guards "went down into the depths like a stone," when he fled before the power of God which was with Constantine, and passed through the river which lay in his way, over which he had formed a bridge with boats, and thus prepared the means of his own destruction.
See Chapter IX-
Eusebius was quoting from Wis. 10:18 in which Divine Wisdom drowns the Egyptians in the Red sea.
In gratitude, Constantine honors Athena/Divine Wisdom on his Arch of Constantine, Rome-

On left, Athena/Minerva approves as Constantine is crowned by Nike (Victory). Roman soldiers trample enemy on the right.
Great Trajanic Frieze on primary bay of Arch of Constantine. See footnote 9AA.

On left- Top left Frieze, Arch of Constantine, East Facade- shows Constantine
entering Rome greeted by Athena/Minerva- Nike (winged victory) is above bearing garlands- see footnote 9A.
On right- 1812 drawing by Thomas Hope, ANTIQUES magazine, July 2008, page 71. Hope's "Goddess Roma" is Athena/Minerva.

Athena in chariot with Nike above rising above opposing force. This medallion appears on Constantine's Arch
directly above scene of Constantine's army leaving Rome to meet Maxentius- see footnote 9

Athena in chariot with Nike above coming down on opposing force. This medallion appears on Arch of Constantine
directly above scene of Constantine's army after victory entering Rome in triumph- see footnote 9.

-Constantine included Athena/Divine Wisdom as Holy Spirit at Council of Nicea 325CE--
In respect for the power of Divine Wisdom ("Great strength is thine to exert at any moment.." Wis.11:21), and the job she had done protecting him ("She kept him safe from his enemies, and preserved him from treacherous attacks; she gave him victory after a hard struggle,..." Wis.10:12) and her assistance to prophets & others since the world began, Constantine included her as the Holy Spirit in his new Trinity.

The Nicene Creed which was approved at the Council of Nicaea in 325- Holy Spirit is introduced, but not defined:
We believe in one God, father almighty, ...
And in the Holy Spirit.

The Nicene-Constantinopolitan Creed of 381 CE expanded Constantine's thinking on Holy Spirit-
I believe in One God, the Father Almighty,...
And in the Holy Spirit, the Lord, the Giver of Life, Who proceeds from the Father; Who with the Father and the Son together is worshipped and glorified; Who spoke by the prophets.

We note:
1)- Holy Spirit's gender is not defined as male...because Divine Wisdom/Athena are female.
2)- "Giver of Life" refers to Prov. 8:31 and Wis. 9:9 (Divine Wisdom is involved in making the world) and Wis. 10:1 in which Divine Wisdom creates & guarded the first man (Adam).
3)- "Who spoke by the prophets" refers to Wis.10-13, in which Divine Wisdom assists multiple prophets (Noah, Abraham, Jacob, Joseph & Moses).

During this time frame, here is how some Christian's described the Holy Spirit:
"But She—the Spirit-the Paraclete whom He will send to you-my Father-in my name—She will teach you everything; She will remind you of that which I have told you." the words of Jesus in John 14:26 as appears in the most ancient of the rare Old Syriac copies, the Siniatic Palimpsest, from the 4th or 5th century, found in the Covenant of St. Catherine in the Sinia by Mrs. Anes Lewis and transcribed by Syriac Professor R.L. Bensly of Cambridge University in 1892.

-Click below for later Christian reaction to Constantine's Holy Spirit:

- 331CE-Constantine founded Constantinople as the new Rome.
He added many items there to honor Athena/Holy Spirit/Divine Wisdom:

1)- Constantine rebuilt and rededicated pagan temples (such as Fortuna of Rome)--see
Fortuna of Rome was Athena/Divine Wisdom--see below:

the cornucopia that was a symbol of the goddess Fortuna--see
Biblical source document ref Divine Wisdom: "...I endow with riches those who love me
and I will fill their treasuries."
Proverbs 8:21

2)- Constantine moved the 30 foot tall bronze statue of Athena Promachos (built by Phidias) which stood in front of the Parthenon to Constantinople. The statue was destroyed by the crusaders in 1204. See
(we note the 40 foot gold covered Phidias statue of Athena Parthenos continued to stand in the Parthenon in Athens for another 100 years).


3)- Constantine built a huge column (which still stands) atop of which he placed the statue of Apollo. Under the column, he buried the palladium (a small statue of Athena which had been in Rome) to protect the city. See


4)- Constantine began construction of the massive church Hagia Sophia (Holy Wisdom). This was the richest Christian church until sacked by the crusaders in 1204.

As we can see, Constantine honored Holy Spirit/Divine Wisdom/Athena by establishing Her as the Holy Spirit, and by building memorials to Her honor in his new city (and on his Arch in Rome).

-Click below for Female Holy Spirit vs. Male Holy Spirit:

-Ca 400CE-Athena/Minerva palladium removed from Rome (see footnote 11), shortly thereafter Rome sacked. (see footnote 12)
429CE- Athena statue at Parthenon destroyed by Christians.
(see footnote 13 & 13A)
World plunges into the "Dark Ages".

-Athena/Minerva "protected" knowledge during the Renaissance-

MINERVA VICTORIOUS OVER IGNORANCE by Bartholomeus Spranger C. 1591 (see footnote 14)
"Bartholomeus' painting "Wisdom Conquers Ignorance" carries an appropriate theme for the time in history in which the artist
was painting. The Renaissance was a time period literally named for the "rebirth" of knowledge from the ignorance of the
Middle Ages. The Muses are also shown in the picture with Athena because the Renaissance did not just overcome the
ignorance of math and science, but also of literature, music, and art." (see footnote 15)

-Athena/Minerva "protected" rebels during the French and American revolutions (late 1700's)-

The helmet is the symbol of the Goddess Athena/Minerva.
Her symbol is a distinctive red stocking cap: the pileus, or Phrygian cap. In the Revolutionary era, rebels in America and France wore this "liberty cap" as a symbol of freedom from enslaving authority, and often raised it on a pole or pike as their standard. (see footnote 16)

-Athena/Minerva "protects" America-

America Guided by Wisdom--Minerva, Goddess of Wisdom, is pointing to a shield held by Genius of America.
by Francis Sinnett
, after an engraving (c. 1815-1820) by Benjamin Tanner of a James Barralet composition.
Charleston Renaissance Gallery flyer August 2005

-Athena/Minerva/Liberty "protected" deliberations at Congress Hall (while federal
capital in Phila)--

"Minerva as the Patroness of American Liberty", Giuseppe Ceracchi, 1791. This 6 foot high monumental
sculpture loomed over the Speaker's chair in Congress Hall, Phila.
Note Cap of Liberty on Minerva's breast plate.
A Brief History of the Library Company of Philadelphia, p.23.

-Athena/Minerva/Liberty "protecting" America (on original 1776 design of Great Seal)--

Thomas Jefferson and others worked on the Great Seal design for USA along with designer Eugene Du Simitiere.
This initial design was part of Jefferson papers. Note on left Goddess of Liberty with spear and Cap of Liberty. (see footnote 17)

-Athena/Minerva/Liberty "protecting" America (1782 Boston newspaper article)--

America is represented as Minerva (on the right). She is holding spear with the cap of Liberty. (see footnote 17)

-Athena/Minerva/Liberty "protecting" America (1789 London book)--

"Minerva, or Civic Virtue, Associated with Franklin and Washington."-- Library of Congress description.
Note the Cap of Liberty on spear in left hand. (see footnote 17)

-Athena/Minerva/Liberty "protecting" America (1871 coin)--

Minerva/Liberty holding spear & Cap of Liberty (see footnote 18)

-Athena/Minerva/Liberty adopted by George Washington as his personal watermark--

Goddess Minerva/Liberty (shown above) was incorporated by Geo. Washington
as a watermark in his personal stationary.
(see footnote 19)

-Athena/Minerva/Liberty "protecting" America (US Capitol, Washington, DC)--
George Washington & Thomas Jefferson set up a Capitol architectural contest in 1792. They thought the new Capitol building
should symbolize a Temple of Liberty in a secular sense. The Greco-Roman model entries were the most favored.
Benjamin Latrobe was one of the contestants. Here is what the Library of Congress says about Latrobe: (see footnote 19)

“Latrobe may have intended this figure to synthesize several allegorical concepts key to the Capitol’s iconography, an updated and Hellenized version of Giuseppe Ceracchi’s Minerva as the Patroness of American Liberty, which had been executed in 1792 for Philadelphia’s Congress Hall. This interpretation strengthens his vision of the Capitol as a synthesis of Roman and Greek political and artistic principles. Athena had been the mythical founder of Athens; her temple had been the Parthenon. ‘Liberty’ had founded the United States as well as the city of Washington; her temple was the Capitol.”

Here is Athena/Minerva/Liberty atop the U.S. Capitol dome (see below)-

see footnote 20

Here is Athena/Minerva/Liberty inside the U.S. Capitol (see below)-

see footnote 19
On the east side of the Great Hall is Elihu Vedder's Marble mosaic of the Minerva of Peace with her shield and helmet set down on the ground. She has put down her arms. On the bottom right, one can see a Winged Nike statue. On her left is one of her symbols, the Owl, signifying wisdom. Behind her is a beaming Sun, so often associated with Libertas and the Sun God Helios, known as Sol in Rome. In her left hand is a scroll that lists disciplines in science, education and art. Minerva is standing guard before the Main Reading Room. According to the Library of Congress, Minerva and her Owl are repeated throughout the Great Hall. In her right is a spear (see above).

Here is Athena/Minerva/Liberty as she appears twice inside the dome of U.S. Capitol -
This magnificent Fresco was done by Constantino Brumadi inside the new cast Iron dome (the Statue of Goddess of Liberty was put atop the outside of the Dome).
At edge of Fresco--Athena/Minerva teaching invention to Benjamin Franklin, Robert Fulton, and Samuel Morse (see below).

see footnote 19

At center of Fresco-- Goddess Minerva/Liberty on Washington's right side (see below).

see footnote 17 & footnote 19

-Athena/Minerva/Liberty dictating Constitution--

see footnote 17
Minerva is represented in the high relief frieze on the pedestal of the 1883 statue of Justice John Marshall on the Capitol grounds. On the left hand side is Minerva dictating the Constitution (see above).

-The philosopher Proclus (412-485CE), leader of Plato's Academy in Athens, was a great admirer of Athena. He felt She protected him. (see footnote 21)
He was greatly saddened when the Christians destroyed Athena's statue in the Parthenon in 429CE (after it had been worshipped there for 867 years).
How pleased he would be to know that Athena has presided over the Capital of the USA, first in Philadelphia, then in Washington, DC, during which time this nation has grown to be the most powerful the world has ever known.

- How does the Virgin Mary fit into all this? Click next below for my findings:


- NEW--Evan found Athena in Austria/Germany/Switzerland- Click below for my findings:


Contact Evan via email


Evan's web site on the Holy Spirit - Divine Feminine-


Evan's earlier research on Athena- see how this website has evolved
since 2004-
First version:

Second version:
Third version:
Fourth version:
Fifth version:

Footnote 1
Footnote 2
Footnote 3
Footnote 4
Footnote 5
Footnote 6
Footnote 7
Footnote 8
Footnote 8A
Footnote 9
Footnote 9AA
Footnote 9A
Footnote 10
Footnote 10A
Footnote 10B
Footnote 10C
St Augustine, THE CITY OF GOD, Book VII, Chapter 28
Footnote 10D
Footnote 10E
Footnote 10F
Footnote 11
Footnote 12
Footnote 13
Footnote 13A
Footnote 14
Footnote 15
Footnote 16
Footnote 17
Footnote 18
Footnote 19
Footnote 20
Footnote 21