of Athena--wearing a helmet & bandishing a spear & shield,
Athena emerges from the head of Zeus. Springing from the mind of God,
she became known as Divine Wisdom.
Group E painter
( c. 540 BCE)- see footnote 1
(429-348 BCE) states that the Goddess Athena is both "...a lover
of war and a lover of wisdom..." (see
Plato Timaeus 24d- -- http://www.goddess-athena.org/Museum/Texts/Plato_x.htm).
Creation of mankind---Athena breathes soul into man- See
A.D., Musee Capitolina
Athena-- protector of humankind since Homeric times
2,700 years ago- See footnote
11 To Athena
I begin to sing of Pallas Athena, the dread Protectress
of the city,
who with Ares looks after matters of war, the plundering of cities,
the battle-cry and the fray.
It is She who protects the people,
wherever they might come or go.
Hail, Goddess, and give us good spirits and blessed favor!
protected Odysseus in Homer's The Odyssey and many heroes in
Palace Bridge, Schlossbrucke, Berlin, Germany- see
Athena protects cities (Athens & Rome, etc.). The Palladium, a
small statue of Athena, was carried to Athens or Rome by Diomedes,
and kept by the Vestal Virgins at the Temple of the Vestals, Rome
( circa 700 BC )
being carried off from Troy to Athens or Rome by Diomedes- footnote
one of three members of Capitoline Triad set up in Rome
and throughout the Roman Empire (the Roman Trinity).
Triad consisted of the goddess Minerva (left), Jupiter (center), and
his consort Juno (right)- see footnote 6
the Capitoline triad from Vetera II, by a standard bearer of XXX Ulpia
Traiana (Rheinisches Landesmuseum, Bonn)
438 BC- Athena's mammoth statue (42 feet high) placed in Parthenon,
6' statue of Nike in right hand. Note serpent by shield on left. This
full sized replica in Nashville, Tenn- see footnote 7
Evan Randolph standing below Athena in Nashville, Tenn. His Nike sneakers
have lit up for the occasion.
"protected" Alexander the Great- after conquering much of
the world in 325BC,
Alexander honors Athena (who protected him) with this gold coin (Alexander
Head of Athena on left, Victory on reverse side- see footnote 8
Greek Septuagint Bible included the Wisdom texts (Proverbs, Wisdom
of Solomon, etc.) The Wisdom texts featured Divine Wisdom (Athena)
in Her role of "protecting" mankind and assisting
their leaders (such as Adam and the prophets Noah, Abraham, Jacob,
Joseph and Moses).
Wisdom "protected" Constantine during his battle of Milvan
Bridge in 313CE, here is how his historian Eusebius describes his
Thus, as in the time of Moses
himself and of the ancient God-beloved race of Hebrews, "he cast
Pharaoh's chariots and host into the sea, and overwhelmed his chosen
charioteers in the Red Sea, and covered them with the flood,"
in the same way Maxentius also with his soldiers and body-guards "went
down into the depths like a stone," when he fled
before the power of God which was with Constantine, and passed
through the river which lay in his way, over which he had formed a
bridge with boats, and thus prepared the means of his own destruction.
Chapter IX- http://www.ucalgary.ca/~vandersp/Courses/texts/eusebius/eusehe6.html
Eusebius was quoting from Wis. 10:18 in which Divine Wisdom drowns
the Egyptians in the Red sea.
In gratitude, Constantine honors Athena/Divine Wisdom on his Arch
of Constantine, Rome-
On left, Athena/Minerva
approves as Constantine is crowned by Nike (Victory). Roman soldiers
trample enemy on the right.
Great Trajanic Frieze on primary bay of Arch of Constantine. See footnote
On left- Top left
Frieze, Arch of Constantine, East Facade- shows Constantine
entering Rome greeted by Athena/Minerva- Nike (winged victory) is
above bearing garlands- see footnote 9A.
On right- 1812 drawing by Thomas Hope, ANTIQUES magazine, July 2008,
page 71. Hope's "Goddess Roma" is Athena/Minerva.
Athena in chariot with Nike above rising above opposing force. This
medallion appears on Constantine's Arch
directly above scene of Constantine's army leaving Rome to meet Maxentius-
see footnote 9
Athena in chariot with Nike above coming down on opposing force. This
medallion appears on Arch of Constantine
directly above scene of Constantine's army after victory entering
Rome in triumph- see footnote 9.
included Athena/Divine Wisdom as Holy Spirit at Council of Nicea 325CE--
respect for the power of Divine Wisdom ("Great
strength is thine to exert at any moment.." Wis.11:21),
and the job she had done protecting him ("She
kept him safe from his enemies, and preserved him from treacherous
attacks; she gave him victory after a hard struggle,..." Wis.10:12)
and her assistance to prophets & others since the world began,
Constantine included her as the Holy Spirit in his new Trinity.
Nicene Creed which was approved at the Council of Nicaea in 325- Holy
Spirit is introduced, but not defined:
believe in one God, father almighty, ...
And in the Holy Spirit.
Nicene-Constantinopolitan Creed of 381 CE expanded Constantine's thinking
on Holy Spirit-
believe in One God, the Father Almighty,...
And in the Holy Spirit, the Lord, the Giver
of Life, Who proceeds from the Father; Who with the Father
and the Son together is worshipped and glorified; Who
spoke by the prophets.
1)- Holy Spirit's gender is not defined as male...because Divine Wisdom/Athena
2)- "Giver of Life" refers
to Prov. 8:31 and Wis. 9:9 (Divine Wisdom is involved in making the
world) and Wis. 10:1 in which Divine Wisdom creates & guarded
the first man (Adam).
3)- "Who spoke by the prophets"
refers to Wis.10-13, in which Divine Wisdom assists multiple prophets
(Noah, Abraham, Jacob, Joseph & Moses).
this time frame, here is how some Christian's described the Holy Spirit:
Shethe Spirit-the Paraclete whom He will
send to you-my Father-in my nameShe will
teach you everything; She will remind you of
that which I have told you." the
words of Jesus in John 14:26 as appears in the most ancient of the
rare Old Syriac copies, the Siniatic Palimpsest, from the 4th or 5th
century, found in the Covenant of St. Catherine in the Sinia by Mrs.
Anes Lewis and transcribed by Syriac Professor R.L. Bensly of Cambridge
University in 1892.
below for later Christian reaction to Constantine's Holy Spirit:
331CE-Constantine founded Constantinople as the
He added many items there to honor Athena/Holy Spirit/Divine Wisdom:
1)- Constantine rebuilt and rededicated pagan temples (such as Fortuna
of Rome)--see http://www.cornucopia.net/aboutuilc.html
Fortuna of Rome was Athena/Divine
the cornucopia that was a symbol of the goddess Fortuna--see
Biblical source document ref Divine Wisdom: "...I
endow with riches those who love me
and I will fill their treasuries." Proverbs 8:21
moved the 30 foot tall bronze statue of Athena Promachos (built by
Phidias) which stood in front of the Parthenon to Constantinople.
The statue was destroyed by the crusaders in 1204. See
(we note the 40 foot gold covered Phidias statue of Athena Parthenos
continued to stand in the Parthenon in Athens for another 100 years).
Constantine built a huge column (which still stands) atop of which
he placed the statue of Apollo. Under the column, he buried the palladium
(a small statue of Athena which had been in Rome) to protect the city.
Constantine began construction of the massive church Hagia Sophia
(Holy Wisdom). This
was the richest Christian church until sacked by the crusaders in
we can see, Constantine honored Holy Spirit/Divine Wisdom/Athena by
establishing Her as the Holy Spirit, and by building memorials to
Her honor in his new city (and on his Arch in Rome).
below for Female Holy Spirit vs. Male Holy Spirit:
400CE-Athena/Minerva palladium removed from Rome (see
shortly thereafter Rome sacked. (see
429CE- Athena statue at Parthenon destroyed by Christians.
footnote 13 & 13A)
World plunges into the "Dark
"protected" knowledge during the Renaissance-
MINERVA VICTORIOUS OVER IGNORANCE by Bartholomeus
Spranger C. 1591 (see footnote 14)
"Bartholomeus' painting "Wisdom Conquers Ignorance"
carries an appropriate theme for the time in history in which the
was painting. The Renaissance was a time period literally named for
the "rebirth" of knowledge from the ignorance of the
Middle Ages. The Muses are also shown in the picture with Athena because
the Renaissance did not just overcome the
ignorance of math and science, but also of literature, music, and
art." (see footnote 15)
"protected" rebels during the French and American revolutions
The helmet is the symbol of the Goddess
Her symbol is a distinctive red stocking cap: the pileus, or Phrygian
cap. In the Revolutionary era, rebels in America and France wore this
"liberty cap" as a symbol of freedom from enslaving authority,
and often raised it on a pole or pike as their standard. (see footnote
by Wisdom--Minerva, Goddess of Wisdom, is pointing to a shield held
by Genius of America.
by Francis Sinnett, after an engraving (c. 1815-1820) by Benjamin
Tanner of a James Barralet composition.
Charleston Renaissance Gallery flyer August 2005
"protected" deliberations at Congress Hall (while federal
capital in Phila)--
as the Patroness of American Liberty", Giuseppe Ceracchi, 1791.
This 6 foot high monumental
sculpture loomed over the Speaker's chair in Congress Hall, Phila.
Note Cap of Liberty on Minerva's breast plate.
A Brief History of the Library Company of Philadelphia, p.23.
"protecting" America (on original 1776 design of Great Seal)--
and others worked on the Great Seal design for USA along with designer
Eugene Du Simitiere.
This initial design was part of Jefferson papers. Note on left Goddess
of Liberty with spear and Cap of Liberty. (see footnote 17)
"protecting" America (1782 Boston newspaper article)--
America is represented
as Minerva (on the right). She is holding spear with the cap of Liberty.
(see footnote 17)
"protecting" America (1789 London book)--
or Civic Virtue, Associated with Franklin and Washington."--
Library of Congress description.
Note the Cap of Liberty on spear in left hand. (see footnote 17)
"protecting" America (1871 coin)--
holding spear & Cap of Liberty (see footnote 18)
adopted by George Washington as his personal watermark--
(shown above) was incorporated by Geo. Washington
as a watermark in his personal stationary. (see
"protecting" America (US Capitol, Washington, DC)--
& Thomas Jefferson set up a Capitol architectural contest in 1792.
They thought the new Capitol building
should symbolize a Temple of Liberty in a secular sense. The
Greco-Roman model entries were the most favored.
Benjamin Latrobe was one of the contestants. Here is what the Library
of Congress says about Latrobe: (see footnote 19)
Latrobe may have intended
this figure to synthesize several allegorical concepts key to the
Capitols iconography, an updated and Hellenized version of Giuseppe
Ceracchis Minerva as the Patroness of American Liberty, which
had been executed in 1792 for Philadelphias Congress Hall. This
interpretation strengthens his vision of the Capitol as a synthesis
of Roman and Greek political and artistic principles. Athena had been
the mythical founder of Athens; her temple had been the Parthenon.
Liberty had founded the United States as well as the
city of Washington; her temple was the Capitol.
is Athena/Minerva/Liberty atop the U.S. Capitol dome (see below)-
see footnote 20
is Athena/Minerva/Liberty inside the U.S. Capitol (see below)-
see footnote 19
On the east side of the Great Hall is Elihu
Vedder's Marble mosaic of the Minerva of Peace with her shield and
helmet set down on the ground. She has put down her arms. On the bottom
right, one can see a Winged Nike statue. On her left is one of her
symbols, the Owl, signifying wisdom. Behind her is a beaming Sun,
so often associated with Libertas and the Sun God Helios, known as
Sol in Rome. In her left hand is a scroll that lists disciplines in
science, education and art. Minerva is standing guard before the Main
Reading Room. According to the Library of Congress, Minerva and her
Owl are repeated throughout the Great Hall. In her right is a spear
is Athena/Minerva/Liberty as she appears twice inside the dome of
U.S. Capitol -
APOTHEOSIS OF WASHINGTON FRESCO--THE
CAPITOL DOME- This
magnificent Fresco was done by Constantino Brumadi inside the new
cast Iron dome (the Statue of Goddess of Liberty was put atop the
outside of the Dome).
At edge of Fresco--Athena/Minerva
teaching invention to Benjamin Franklin, Robert Fulton, and Samuel
Morse (see below).
see footnote 19
At center of Fresco-- Goddess Minerva/Liberty on
Washington's right side (see below).
see footnote 17
& footnote 19
see footnote 17
Minerva is represented in the high relief
frieze on the pedestal of the 1883 statue of Justice John Marshall
on the Capitol grounds. On the left hand side is Minerva dictating
the Constitution (see above).
philosopher Proclus (412-485CE), leader of Plato's Academy in Athens,
was a great admirer of Athena. He felt She protected him.
He was greatly
saddened when the Christians destroyed Athena's statue in the Parthenon
in 429CE (after it had been worshipped there for 867 years).
How pleased he would be to know that Athena has presided over the
Capital of the USA, first in Philadelphia, then in Washington, DC,
during which time this nation has grown to be the most powerful the
world has ever known.
How does the Virgin Mary fit into all this? Click
next below for my findings:
found Athena in Austria/Germany/Switzerland- Click
below for my findings:
Contact Evan via
web site on the Holy Spirit - Divine Feminine-
Evan's earlier research on Athena-
see how this website has evolved
St Augustine, THE CITY OF GOD, Book VII, Chapter 28