by Evan Randolph

The Return of Athena--- reclaiming our universal protectress

Constantine the Great (272-372 CE) believed the Palladium (a statue of Athena) protected Rome.
Constantine "diminished none of the priveleges of the sacred virgins---" Quote from Symmachus references the late emporer Constantine's policy. See footnote 1

The circular Temple of Vesta- The Ancient City, Peter Connolly & Hazel Dodge, Oxford Press, p. 172
The priestly office of the College of Vestal Virgins was created by the second King of Rome. The Vestal Virgins
guarded the Palladium and kept the sacred fire burning. (see footnote 2)
The Palladium was an image of Pallas Athena on which the safety of the city depended (see footnote 3),
In Greek & Roman mythology, Odysseus and Diomedes stole the Palladium from Troy and thus
defeated the city. (see footnote 3)
The College of Vestal Virgins ended in 391 CE, when disbanded by Theodosius I. (see footnote 2)

Shortly thereafter, in 410 CE- the Visigoths sacked Rome (see footnote 4)

Constantine honors Athena & Nike by placing them above his army on his Arch commemorating his victory. Constantine defeated Maxentius at Milvan Bridge in 312 CE. The Arch of Constantine was erected in 315 CE to celebrate this victory. The medallions and copy on this Arch show Constantine's appreciation of the support of Athena & Nike in his victory. (see footnote 5) [THIS IS A NEW FINDING- NOT LISTED ON GOOGLE]

Athena in chariot with Nike above rising above opposing force. This medallion appears on Constantine's Arch
directly above scene of Constantine's army leaving Rome to meet Maxentius. (see footnote 6)

Athena in chariot with Nike above coming down on opposing force. This medallion appears
directly above scene of Constantine's army after victory entering Rome in triumph. (see footnote 6)

Here is the complete scene showing Athena & Nike directly above Constantine's army
entering Rome in triumph, Constantine in his chariot on the left.
(see footnote 7)

Constantine honors Athena goddess of wisdom when he states on his Arch (lines 3 & 4 above):
"...quod instinctu divinitatis mentis magnitudine..."
this translated: "...since through divine inspiration and great wisdom..."
(for inscription- see footnote 8, translation- see footnote 9)

In 330 CE Constantine moved his seat of government from Rome to Byzantium, later called Constantinople. (see footnote 10)
Constantine the Great erected the first church of Hagia Sophia (Divine Wisdom) in Byzantium.(see footnote 11)
Few structures remain of Constantine's Byzantium except a huge column which he erected.(see footnote 12)
This column stands 120 feet high. Constantine topped it with a colossal bronze statue of Apollo, supposedly the work of Phidias. Underneath this pillar, it is said that Constantine had buried the Palladium which he had removed from Rome. (see footnote 13)

Constantine's 120 foot column in Constantinople with the Palladium buried underneath. (see footnote 14)

Constantine in 325 CE presided over the Council of Nicea. The significant result of this Council was the adoption of the doctrine of the Trinity. Christianity used the thinking of Plato to formulate its Trinity doctrine. (see footnote 15)
As the learned trinitarian historian Mosheim states concerning Origen and the Platonizing movement 200-250CE:

"A new class of philosophers had grown up in Egypt ...they much preferred Plato, and embraced most of his dogmas concerning God, the human soul, and the universe." (see footnote 15)
"The Christian bishops introduced, with but slight alterations, into the Christian worship, those rites and institutions by which formerly the Greeks and Romans and others had manifested their piety and reverence toward their imaginary deities; supposing that the people would more readily embrace Christianity if they perceived the rites handed down to them from their fathers still existing unchanged among the Christians, and saw that Christ and the martyrs were worshipped in the same manner as formerly their gods were." (see footnote 15)
"There was, accordingly, little difference in these times between the public worship of the Christians and that of the Greeks and Romans." (see footnote 15)
"It will be noted ... that the most distinguished "Christian" teachers of the 4th century looked to Origen and the Platonic philosophy as their model. Any doctrines therefore - such as the Trinity - formulated at this time are bound to be more pagan than Christian." (see footnote 15)

Plato speaks of 3 specific Gods-- We read in Plato's Euthydemus in a dialog between Socrates and Dionysodorus:
"No matter, said Dionysodorus, for you admit that you have Apollo, Zeus, and Athene.
Certainly, I said.
And they are your Gods, he said.
Yes, I said, my lords and ancestors." (see footnote 16)
Therefore Plato identifies Zeus, Apollo & Athena as his Trinity.

Constantine's Holy Spirit was gender neutral, allowing for a feminine third member of the Trinity--We note in the Council of Nicea 325 CE and in the 2nd ecumenical Council of Constantinople 381 CE that the Holy Ghost/Holy Spirit was of neutral gender---here is the 381 CE copy (see footnote 17):
"And in the Holy Spirit, the Lord, the Giver of Life,
Who proceeds from the Father,
Who with the Father and the Son is equally worshipped and glorified,
Who spoke by the Prophets."

Here is the exposition of the 150 fathers at the 2nd Council 381 CE (see footnote 18):
"And in the Spirit, the holy, the lordly and life-giving one, proceeding forth from the Father, co-worshipped and co-glorified with Father and Son, the one who spoke through the prophets; in one, holy, catholic and apostolic church."

It was not until 589 CE at the Council of Toledo that the Holy Spirit was defined as masculine and the filoque clause added. The Eastern Churches did not agree with this change (see footnote 19):
"We believe in the Holy Spirit, the Lord, the giver of life,
who proceeds from the Father and the Son.
With the Father and the Son He is worshiped and glorified.
He has spoken through the Prophets."

Evidence that the Holy Spirit is feminine:
Gospel according to the Hebrews (in Origen, Commentary on John 2:12 and Homily on Jeremiah 15:4)--And if any accept the Gospel of the Hebrews, here the Savior says: "Even so did my mother, the Holy Spirit, take me by one of my hairs, and carry me to the great Mount Tabor." Jerome also records these words in Latin in his commentaries on Micah 7:6, Isaiah 40:9ff., and Ezekiel 16:13. (see footnote 20). Constantine's historian Eusebius in 324 CE explains the Gospel of Hebrews is one of the disputed books but "known to most churchmen." (see footnote 21)

Jesus indicates the Spirit is feminine--- In response to a question from Nicodemus who asked “ But how is it possible for a man to be born when he is old? Can he enter his mother’s womb a second time and be born?” -NEB, John III: 4.
Jesus responds: “ No one can enter the kingdom of God without being born from water and spirit. Flesh can give birth only to flesh; it is spirit that gives birth to spirit.” -NEB, John III: 5-6.

But She -the Spirit - the Paraclete whom He-will-send to you- my Father - in my name - She will teach you every-thing; She will remind you of that which I have told you.
In the most ancient of the rare Old Syriac copies, the Siniatic Palimpsest (see footnote 22)

“the Spirit, in Hebrew, was feminine ( rouach ).--- The Syriac Fathers, in whose language ‘Spirit’ was feminine, went so far as to call it our Mother.”---The Seat of Wisdom - Louis Bouyer
"Within Judaism, the Shekinah (or "visible" cloud of the Presence) is a feminine word, thought to be Yahvah's feminine aspect;
therefore, they called the Spirit the "mother". " (see footnote 20)

Ben Zoma, a younger contemporary of the Apostles, states in the Talmud ( Hagiga 15a ) “ and the Spirit of God was brooding over the face of the waters like a dove which broods over her young but does not touch them.”

Evidence to suggest that Athena was Constantine's Holy Spirit:
Athena represents power & wisdom, features of the Holy Spirit.
“The spirit of the Lord shall rest upon him, a spirit of wisdom and understanding, a spirit of counsel and power, a spirit of knowledge and the fear of the Lord”-NEB, Isaiah XI: 1,2
“ will receive power when the Holy Spirit comes upon you...” -NEB, Acts of Apostles I: 8

Divine Wisdom is the Holy Spirit who "spoke by the prophets."
(Wisdom helping Noah) “---the earth being drowned with the flood, wisdom again preserved it, and directed the course of the righteous in a piece of wood---” Septuagint Wis. X: 4
(Wisdom helping Jacob) “When the righteous fled from his brother’s wrath, she guided him in right paths---made him rich in his travels---She defended him from his enemies, and kept him safe from those that lay in wait.”- Septuagint, Wis. X : 10-12
(Wisdom helping Joseph) “When the righteous was sold, she forsook him not--- she went down with him in the pit---she brought him the sceptre of the kingdom---and gave him perpetual glory.” Septuagint X: 13-14
(Wisdom helping Moses) ”She entered into the soul of the servant of the Lord, and withstood dreadful kings in wonders and signs; rendered to the righteous a reward of their labors, guided them in a marvelous way, and was unto them for a cover by day, and a light of stars in the night season; brought them through the Red sea, and led them through much water: but she drowned their enemies, and cast them up out of the bottom of the deep.”- Septuagint, Wisdom X: 16 - 19

Divine Wisdom is the Holy Spirit
St. Irenaeus, Bishop of Lyons, one of the early church fathers, in his great work Against Heresies1 circa A.D.182, wrote “..And that Wisdom also, which is the Spirit, was present with Him , anterior to all creation, He declares by Solomon: “ God by Wisdom founded the earth, and by understanding hath He established the heaven.By His knowledge the depths burst forth, and the clouds dropped down the dew."

Athena is Divine Wisdom
Jewish-Hellenic Biblical writers in 100 BC wrote the Wisdom texts in Greek in Alexandria, these include Proverbs and the apocraphal book Wisdom of Solomon. These writers sought to fuse Greek allegory into Jewish Old Testament texts.
The Jewish-Hellenic Biblical writers admired the ideas of Plato & Homer. They incorporated Plato's concept of the soul into the wisdom texts (Wis 3: 1-19). This thinking was foreign to the Old Testament and the Jewish resurrection of the body (Dan. 12.2).
They appropriated many of Athena's attributes outlined in the Odyssey (or elsewhere) and labelled them as Divine Wisdom--here are examples:

Wisdom helped to create mankind- "...when he prescribed its limits for the sea and knit together earth's foundations. Then I was at his side each day, his darling and delight, playing in his presence continually, playing on the earth, when he had finished it, while my delight was in mankind." Proverbs 8:29-31
Athena helped to create mankind- "Prometheus is holding a man whom he created; Athena breathes soul into him in the form of a butterfly." Sarcophagos 270 AD, Musee Capitolina--see footnote 23

Wisdom Intercessor between God the Father & man- "...who ever learnt to know thy purposes, unless thou hadst given him wisdom and sent thy holy spirit down from heaven on high? Thus it was that those on earth were set upon the right path, and men were taught what pleases thee; thus they were preserved by wisdom." Wisdom 9: 17- 18
Athena Intercessor between God the Father & man- Athena asks Zeus to help Odysseus: "Olympian Zeus, have you no care for him in your lofty heart?" Odyssey 1: 72. Athena appeals to Zeus on behalf of Odysseus: "Father, son of Cronus, our high and mighty king, now let me ask you a question...tell me the secrets hidden in your mind." Odyssey 24: 522

Wisdom helps & protects you- "Through me kings are sovereign and governors make just laws. Through me princes act like princes, from me all rulers on earth derive their nobility." Proverbs 8:15-16
"Wisdom it was who kept guard over the first father of the human race, when he alone had yet been made..." Wisdom 10:1
Athena helps & protects you- Athena to Odysseus: "Surely I'll stand beside you, not forget you, not when the day arrives for us to do our work." Odyssey 13: 449

Divine Wisdom adept at tactics/strategy- "Wisdom prevails over strength, knowledge over brute force; for wars are won by skillful strategy, and victory is the fruit of long planning." Proverbs 24: 5-6
Athena & Odysseus discuss tactics/strategy- "Then down they sat by the sacred olive's trunk to plot the death of the high and mighty suitors. The bright eyed goddess Athena led the way..." Odyssey 13: 426

Wisdom's mind knows all things- "For she knows and understands all things..." Wisdom 9:11
Athena's mind knows all things- Odysseus to Athena: "You know it all." Odyssey 13: 475

Wisdom loves you- "Those who love me I love...." Proverbs 8:17
Athena loves you- Nestor to Telemachus: "If only the bright-eyed goddess chose to love you just as she lavished care on brave Odysseus...I've never seen the immortals show so much affection as Pallas openly showed him..." Odyssey 3: 247

Wisdom has power- "I have force, I have ability; understanding and power are mine." Proverbs 8: 14
Athena has power- Phantom (Athena) to Penelope: "She has power- Pallas Athena." Odyssey 4: 931. Odysseus wins fight: "thanks to Athena's superhuman power." Odyssey 8: 584

Wisdom provides immortality-
"Through her I shall have immortality,---" Wisdom 8:13
"in kinship with wisdom lies immortality---" Wisdom 8:17
Athena provides immortality-
Athena gifted Diomede with immortality---- (see footnote 24)
"Dionysos is then reborn due to Athena---" (see footnote 25)

Holy Spirit was feminine
Holy Spirit has Athena's traits
Divine Wisdom is the Holy Spirit
Athena is Divine Wisdom

Athena is the Holy Spirit


The Athena statue in the Parthenon was huge and in place for
867 years
(until destroyed by Christians).

Athena Parthenos, Greek goddess of Wisdom. (Parthenos means Virgin). This statue reproduces, with a slight variation in posture, the celebrated Athena Parthenos by Phidias in the Parthenon. The huge statue, approx. 42 feet tall, dominated the interior of the Parthenon in Athens, Greece. She held a shield upright with a snake coiled within it; the other hand held a Nike (Victory). Phidias' massive statue of Athena stood in the Parthenon 438 BCE until 429 CE, a total of 867 years.The reproduction above is 2nd century CE. Athens Museum. New Larousse Encyclopedia of Mythology, p. 107
Athena's dress was covered in gold, the value of which in today's dollars would be $12,000,000. (see Footnote 26)

Here is a full sized reproduction of Athena-

This full-scale replica of Athena Parthenos, Greek goddess of Wisdom, is 41 feet 10 inches tall and weighs 12 tons. The goddess of victory (Nike) in Athena's right hand is 6 feet 4 inches tall. (see Footnote 27 ref Athena statue)
Located in Nashville, TN, Athena Parthenos is the centerpiece of a full scale replica of the ancient Parthenon
(see Footnote 28 ref Parthenon, Nashville)

Here is Evan Randolph (lower right) standing in front of 42 foot statue of Athena
in the Parthenon, Nashville. Note how Evan's Nike sneakers lit up for the occasion.

42 foot Athena as seen from the side between the pillars of the Parthenon, Nashville.


Plato (429-348 BCE) states that the Goddess Athena is both "...a lover of war and a lover of wisdom..." (see Plato Timaeus 24d- footnote 29).
Plato Cratylus 407a-b - "The ancients seem to have had the same belief about Athena as the interpreters of Homer have now; for most of these, in commenting on the poet, say that he represents Athena as mind (nous) and intellect (dianoia); and the maker of names seems to have had a similar conception of her, and indeed he gives her the still higher title of "divine intelligence" (hê theou noêsis), seeming to say: This is she who has the mind of God (Theonoa)..."
(see footnote 29)
Plato wrote about wisdom in a female context; she can be found in all her purity in the other world, where the souls go after death. (Plato, Phaedo, The Harvard Classics 1909, p. 57)

800 BC- The Greek goddess of Wisdom Athena appeared 162 times in HOMER'S ODYSSEY. She came down from heaven and provided significant help to Odysseus in his earthly travails. (see footnote 30)
It is interesting that Athena & Odysseus planned the recovery of Odysseus's wife and home on Apollo's grand festal day (Odyssey 20:307). This change around of Odysseus's fortunes, long in decline and now on the upswing, occured at the Winter Solstice, then December 25th--Apollo's festal day! (see Footnote 31).
Apollo was a sun god, a healer-god, the god of divination and prophecy, shepherd-god, in addition to archer-god
(New Larousse Encyclopedia of Mythology- pg 113) and was born on December 25th, the winter solstice.

[NEW DATA]-- Jewish-Hellenic Biblical writers incorporated Homer's Odyssey directly into the Wisdom of Solomon 4:10 - 5:22 (in the Septuagint)
Athena, Greek goddess of wisdom, who played such a key role in saving Odysseus in the Odyssey, now reappears as Divine Wisdom in the Jewish-Hellenic Wisdom texts.
Click for supporting documentation--[THIS IS A NEW FINDING- NOT LISTED ON GOOGLE]


"Christian antipathy to paganism is ungrateful, since it derives every element of its theology, ritual and symbolism, along with its sacred scriptures, from that source; it reconstructed its entire dogma over the model of pagan, that is, of Platonic and Aristotelian philosophy; it has perpetuated the celebration of most of the pagan religious festivals; and, finally, it has adopted, as its own policy, the pagan emphasis on esotericism." See footnote 32

Early Christians destroy Athena's statue in the Parthenon in 429 CE
Athena installed in her Temple the Parthenon in Athens in 438 BCE, atop the Acropolis. (see footnote 33)
Athena remained enshrined inside the Parthenon until 429 CE (a total of 867 years), when "The Temple of Goddess Athena (Parthenon) on the Acropolis of Athens is sacked." (see Footnote 34)
"The Christians, under the emperor Theodosius II, removed the statue to Byzantium, where it was stripped of its
gold and destroyed without a trace."
(see Footnote 35)

Statement 5
527-565 CE- CHRISTIAN ROMAN EMPEROR JUSTINIAN (RULING FROM CONSTANTINOPLE) EMBRACED CLASSICAL GREEK THINKING---he rebuilt the magnificant church Hagia Sofia (Divine Wisdom) in Constantinople which was described at the time using thinly veiled references to Athena.
Click here for supporting documentation

"The most important symbol of Greek heathenism, the Parthenon, was changed in the seventh century into a church for Aghia Sophia, the divine wisdom..."
(see footnote 40)
This shows beyond any doubt that the Christian Church linked Divine Wisdom to Athena.
"It is by no means coincidence that the chief temples of Pagan Athens and Christian Constantinople were both dedicated to Wisdom. The Parthenon as the shrine of the Goddess Athena, Goddess of Wisdom, and Justinian's Great Church both showed respect for "Sophia" which has always been one of the chief traits of the Greek mind."
(see footnote 41)

The Return of Athena--- reclaiming our universal protectress

Footnote 1
Footnote 2
Footnote 3
Footnote 4
Fotnote 5
Footnote 6
Footnote 7
Footnote 8
Click Footnote 6--same source
Footnote 9
Footnote 10
Footnote 11
Footnote 12
Footnote 13
Footnote 14
Footnote 15
Footnote 16
Footnote 17
Footnote 18

Footnote 19
Footnote 20
Footnote 21
Footnote 22
Footnote 23
Footnote 24 (see para 5)
Footnote 25 (see Orphic Mysteries)
Footnote 26
Footnote 27 for Athena statue replica Nashville
Footnote 28 for Nashville Parthenon replica
Footnote 29
Footnote 30
Footnote 31
Footnote 32 (see quote near end)
Footnote 33
Footnote 34
Footnote 35 (see modern date: Dec 4th)
Footnote 36 (see "Literature and the Arts", near bottom)
Footnote 37 (see "Literature and the Arts", nearer bottom)
Footnote 38
Footnote 39
Footnote 40 (para 2)
Footnote 41 (see "The Church of St. Sophia")


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