by Evan Randolph

The Return of Athena--- reclaiming our universal protectress


BACKGROUND ON ROMAN TRINITY- Minerva part of Capitoline Triad-
Built in 509 BC, the largest temple in Rome was called Jupiter Optimus Maximus on the Capitoline Hill.(see footnote 1)

The interior of the temple was divided into three rooms, dedicated not only to Jupiter but also to his consort Juno and the
goddess Minerva. Collectively they are known as the Capitoline Triad, and when Roman power had expanded to encompass an empire, the central temple of many Roman cities - in Italy and further afield - was often dedicated to this Capitoline Triad. (see footnote 2)

Temple of Jupiter Optimus Maximus on Capitoline Hill, Rome-
The Ancient City, Peter Connolly & Hazel Dodge, Oxford Press, p. 170

Minerva (Athena) was a member of the Roman Trinity (Capitoline Triad)
500 years prior Christ.

Constantine the Great (272-372 CE) believed the Palladium (a statue of Athena) protected Rome.
Constantine "diminished none of the priveleges of the sacred virgins---" Quote from Symmachus references the late emporer Constantine's policy. (see footnote 3)

The circular Temple of Vesta- The Ancient City, Peter Connolly & Hazel Dodge, Oxford Press, p. 172
The priestly office of the College of Vestal Virgins was created by the second King of Rome. The Vestal Virgins
guarded the Palladium and kept the sacred fire burning. (see footnote 4)
The Palladium was an image of Pallas Athena on which the safety of the city depended (see footnote 5),
In Greek & Roman writings, Odysseus and Diomedes stole the Palladium from Troy and thus
defeated the city. (see footnote 5)
The College of Vestal Virgins ended in 391 CE when disbanded by Theodosius I. (see footnote 4)

Shortly thereafter, in 410 CE- the Visigoths sacked Rome (see footnote 6)

Constantine honors Athena & Nike by placing them above his army on his Arch commemorating his victory. Constantine defeated Maxentius at Milvian Bridge in 312 CE. The Arch of Constantine was erected in 315 CE to celebrate this victory. The medallions and copy on this Arch show Constantine's appreciation of the support of Athena & Nike in his victory. (see footnote 7)

Athena in chariot with Nike above rising above opposing force. This medallion appears on Constantine's Arch
directly above scene of Constantine's army leaving Rome to meet Maxentius. (see footnote 8)
This scene above portrays the Orphic Hymn to Athena "You driver of steeds... bearing Victory in your arms!" ( see footnote 9)

Athena in chariot with Nike above coming down on opposing force. This medallion appears directly above
scene of Constantine's army (after victory over Maxentius) entering Rome in triumph. (see footnote 8)

Here is the complete scene showing Athena & Nike directly above Constantine's army
entering Rome in triumph, Constantine in his chariot on the left.
(see footnote 10)

Constantine honors Athena goddess of wisdom when he states on his Arch (lines 3 & 4 above):
"...quod instinctu divinitatis mentis magnitudine..."
this translated: "...since through divine inspiration and great wisdom..."
(for inscription- see footnote 8, translation- see footnote 11)

In 330 CE Constantine moved his seat of government from Rome to Byzantium, later called Constantinople. (see footnote 12)
Constantine the Great erected the first church of Hagia Sophia (Divine Wisdom) in Byzantium.(see footnote 13)
Few structures remain of Constantine's Byzantium except a huge column which he erected.(see footnote 14)
This column stands 120 feet high. Constantine topped it with a colossal bronze statue of Apollo, supposedly the work of Phidias. Underneath this pillar, it is said that Constantine had buried the Palladium which he had removed from Rome. (see footnote 15)

Constantine's 120 foot column in Constantinople with the Palladium buried underneath. (see footnote 16)

Constantine in 325 CE presided over the Council of Nicea. The significant result of this Council was the adoption of the doctrine of the Trinity. Christianity used the thinking of Plato to formulate its Trinity doctrine. (see footnote 17)
As the learned trinitarian historian Mosheim states concerning Origen and the Platonizing movement 200-250CE:

"A new class of philosophers had grown up in Egypt ...they much preferred Plato, and embraced most of his dogmas concerning God, the human soul, and the universe." (see footnote 17)
"The Christian bishops introduced, with but slight alterations, into the Christian worship, those rites and institutions by which formerly the Greeks and Romans and others had manifested their piety and reverence toward their imaginary deities; supposing that the people would more readily embrace Christianity if they perceived the rites handed down to them from their fathers still existing unchanged among the Christians, and saw that Christ and the martyrs were worshipped in the same manner as formerly their gods were." (see footnote 17)
"There was, accordingly, little difference in these times between the public worship of the Christians and that of the Greeks and Romans." (see footnote 17)
"It will be noted ... that the most distinguished "Christian" teachers of the 4th century looked to Origen and the Platonic philosophy as their model. Any doctrines therefore - such as the Trinity - formulated at this time are bound to be more pagan than Christian." (see footnote 17)

Plato speaks of 3 specific Gods-- We read in Plato's Euthydemus a dialog between Socrates and Dionysodorus:
"No matter, said Dionysodorus, for you admit that you have Apollo, Zeus, and Athene.
Certainly, I said.
And they are your Gods, he said.
Yes, I said, my lords and ancestors." (see footnote 18)
Therefore Plato identifies Zeus, Apollo & Athena as his Trinity.

Additional Findings ref Constantine:
1)- Constantine's Holy Spirit is gender neutral -- Click for additional information
2)- Evidence that Holy Spirit is feminine -- Click for additional information
3)- Evidence that Athena was Constantine's Holy Spirit--- Click here

St. Augustine (354-430 CE) confirms Minerva (Athena) as the Holy Spirit-

St Augustine became Bishop of Hippo in Africa in 395 CE. After the sack of Rome in 410 CE, "boatloads of upper-class Romans fled the Eternal City for North Africa....thus began a rebirth of a sophisticated philosophical paganism that leaned heavily on the writings of Plotinus and Porphyry--Augustine's old friends from his former life of philosophy." (see footnote 19)
St Augustine in 413 CE wrote The City of God, "his primary audience was those who were turning to philosophy or to a literary paganism, blaming Christianity for the fall of Rome." (see footnote 19)
He argued that neither Rome nor Troy perished because they lost Minerva. The City of God, Book I, Chapter 2

St Augustine writes concerning Plato's comments on Minerva: "another the patterns of things, which Plato calls ideas. He makes Jupiter to signify heaven, Juno the earth, Minerva the ideas. .... But, with respect to the last, I am forgetting to say that Plato attributed so great an importance to these ideas as to say, not that anything was made by heaven according to them, but that according to them heaven itself was made".[1] his footnote "In the Timæus".
The City of God, Book VII, Chapter 28
St Augustine places Minerva as third member of Plato's Trinity.

St Augustine comments on the views of his two pagan friends Plotinus (204-270 CE) and Porphyry (232-303 CE) as to their views on Platonist "principles" or Trinity (see also footnote below).
"For Plotinus places the soul of nature after the intellect of the Father, while Porphyry, making it the mean, does not place it after, but between the others. No doubt he spoke according to his light, or as he thought expedient; but we assert that the Holy Spirit is the Spirit not of the Father only, nor of the Son only, but of both. For philosophers speak as they have a mind to, and in the most difficult matters do not scruple to offend religious ears; but we are bound to speak according to a certain rule, lest freedom of speech beget impiety of opinion about the matters themselves of which we speak." The City of God, Book X, Chapter 23
A footnote on Platonist "principles" states: "The Platonists of the Alexandrian and Athenian schools, from Plotinus to Proclus, are at one in recognizing in God three principles or hypostases: 1st, the One or the Good, which is the Father; 2nd, the Intelligence or Word, which is the Son; 3rd, the Soul, which is the universal principle of life. But as to the nature and order of these hypostases, the Alexandrians are no longer at one with the school of Athens. On the very subtle differences between the Trinity of Plotinus and that of Porphyry, consult M. Jules Simon, ii. 110, and M. Vacherot, ii. 37.—Saisset".
The City of God, Book X, Chapter 23
St Augustine identifies the Holy Spirit as the third member of the Platonist Trinity, thereby re-naming Plato's Minerva as the Holy Spirit.

Conclusion- As St Augustine confirms that the Trinity has Platonic roots, and that Minerva was in Plato's Trinity, he thereby supports our contention that Constantine incorporated Athena/Minerva as the Holy Spirit.

Author's comment-
Shortly after St Augustine finished his magnum opus THE CITY OF GOD, in which he compared a peace-loving Christ-centered city to that evil city called Rome, Christians ran rampant trying to obliterate everything pagan.
Pagan temples were demolished, pagan priests were killed, Athena's gold statue in the Parthenon was destroyed, pagan books and the massive library at Alexandria were burned. The world plunged into the Dark Ages, culminating in the Crusades and the Inquisition in which millions were killed.

500 years prior to Christ, the pagan Pythagoras taught that the earth was round and introduced the concept of "antipodes", the idea that people on the other side of the earth were walking on the surface upside down in relation to us. (see footnote 20)
The early Christian church Fathers preached that the earth was flat, following Biblical teachings that the earth had 4 corners.
(see footnote 20)
We note that St Augustine in THE CITY OF GOD book XVI chapter 9 argues:
"But as to the fable that there are Antipodes, that is to say, men on the opposite side of the earth, where the sun rises when it
sets to us, men who walk with their feet opposite ours, that is on no ground credible. And, indeed, it is not affirmed that this
has been learned by historical knowledge, but by scientific conjecture...yet it does not follow that the other side of the earth is bare of water; nor even, though it be bare, does it immediately follow that it is peopled. For Scripture, which proves the truth of its historical statements by the accomplishment of its prophecies, gives no false information; and it is too absurd to say, that some men might have taken ship and traversed the whole wide ocean, and crossed from this side of the world to the other, and that thus even the inhabitants of that distant region are descended from that one first man."
Such misinformation prevailed.
The science and wisdom of the Greeks was attacked, and despite the fact people like St Augustine had borrowed pagan thinking, church fathers like St John Chrysostom (344-408 CE) bragged about how they had successfully silenced Greek thinkers like Plato & Pythagoras. (see footnote 20)

Not until the Renaissance did the world slowly begin to rediscover what they once knew. The church finally realized the world was round, as was known by the pagan Pythagoras in 500 BC.
Possibly the church will one day rediscover what Constantine & St Augustine knew, that Minerva/Athena was the original Holy Spirit
named in Constantine's Nicene Creed.

MINERVA VICTORIOUS OVER IGNORANCE by Bartholomeus Spranger C. 1591
(see footnote 21)
"Bartholomeus' painting "Wisdom Conquers Ignorance" carries an appropriate theme for the time in history in which the artist
was painting. The Renaissance was a time period literally named for the "rebirth" of knowledge from the ignorance of the
Middle Ages. The Muses are also shown in the picture with Athena because the Renaissance did not just overcome the
ignorance of math and science, but also of literature, music, and art." (see footnote 22)

The Athena statue in the Parthenon was huge and in place for
867 years
(until destroyed by Christians).

Athena Parthenos, Greek goddess of Wisdom. (Parthenos means Virgin). This statue reproduces, with a slight variation in posture, the celebrated Athena Parthenos by Phidias in the Parthenon. The huge statue, approx. 42 feet tall, dominated the interior of the Parthenon in Athens, Greece. She held a shield upright with a snake coiled within it; the other hand held a Nike (Victory). Phidias' massive statue of Athena stood in the Parthenon 438 BCE until 429 CE, a total of 867 years.The reproduction above is 2nd century CE. Athens Museum. New Larousse Encyclopedia of Mythology, p. 107
Athena's dress was covered in gold, the value of which in today's dollars would be $12,000,000. (see Footnote 23)

Here is a full sized reproduction of Athena-

This full-scale replica of Athena Parthenos, Greek goddess of Wisdom, is 41 feet 10 inches tall and weighs 12 tons. The goddess of victory (Nike) in Athena's right hand is 6 feet 4 inches tall. (see Footnote 24 ref Athena statue)
Located in Nashville, TN, Athena Parthenos is the centerpiece of a full scale replica of the ancient Parthenon
(see Footnote 25 ref Parthenon, Nashville)

Here is Evan Randolph (lower right) standing in front of 42 foot statue of Athena
in the Parthenon, Nashville. Note how Evan's Nike sneakers lit up for the occasion.

42 foot Athena as seen from the side between the pillars of the Parthenon, Nashville.


Plato (429-348 BCE) states that the Goddess Athena is both "...a lover of war and a lover of wisdom..." (see Plato Timaeus 24d- footnote 26).
Plato Cratylus 407a-b - "The ancients seem to have had the same belief about Athena as the interpreters of Homer have now; for most of these, in commenting on the poet, say that he represents Athena as mind (nous) and intellect (dianoia); and the maker of names seems to have had a similar conception of her, and indeed he gives her the still higher title of "divine intelligence" (hê theou noêsis), seeming to say: This is she who has the mind of God (Theonoa)..."
(see footnote 26)
Plato wrote about wisdom in a female context; she can be found in all her purity in the other world, where the souls go after death. (Plato, Phaedo, The Harvard Classics 1909, p. 57)

800 BC- The Greek goddess of Wisdom Athena appeared 162 times in HOMER'S ODYSSEY. She came down from heaven and provided significant help to Odysseus in his earthly travails. (see footnote 27)
It is interesting that Athena & Odysseus planned the recovery of Odysseus's wife and home on Apollo's grand festal day (Odyssey 20:307). This change around of Odysseus's fortunes, long in decline and now on the upswing, occured at the Winter Solstice, then December 25th--Apollo's festal day! (see Footnote 28).
Apollo was a sun god, a healer-god, the god of divination and prophecy, shepherd-god, in addition to archer-god
(New Larousse Encyclopedia of Mythology- pg 113) and was born on December 25th, the winter solstice.

[NEW DATA]-- Jewish-Hellenic Biblical writers incorporated Homer's Odyssey directly into the Wisdom of Solomon 4:10 - 5:22 (in the Septuagint)
Athena, Greek goddess of wisdom, who played such a key role in saving Odysseus in the Odyssey, now reappears as Divine Wisdom in the Jewish-Hellenic Wisdom texts.
Click for supporting documentation--[THIS IS A NEW FINDING- NOT LISTED ON GOOGLE]


"Christian antipathy to paganism is ungrateful, since it derives every element of its theology, ritual and symbolism, along with its sacred scriptures, from that source; it reconstructed its entire dogma over the model of pagan, that is, of Platonic and Aristotelian philosophy; it has perpetuated the celebration of most of the pagan religious festivals; and, finally, it has adopted, as its own policy, the pagan emphasis on esotericism." See footnote 29

Early Christians destroy Athena's statue in the Parthenon in 429 CE
Athena installed in her Temple the Parthenon in Athens in 438 BCE, atop the Acropolis. (see footnote 30)
Athena remained enshrined inside the Parthenon until 429 CE (a total of 867 years), when "The Temple of Goddess Athena (Parthenon) on the Acropolis of Athens is sacked." (see Footnote 31)
"The Christians, under the emperor Theodosius II, removed the statue to Byzantium, where it was stripped of its
gold and destroyed without a trace."
(see Footnote 32)

Statement 5
527-565 CE- CHRISTIAN ROMAN EMPEROR JUSTINIAN (RULING FROM CONSTANTINOPLE) EMBRACED CLASSICAL GREEK THINKING---he rebuilt the magnificant church Hagia Sofia (Divine Wisdom) in Constantinople which was described at the time using thinly veiled references to Athena.
Click here for supporting documentation

"The most important symbol of Greek heathenism, the Parthenon, was changed in the seventh century into a church for Aghia Sophia, the divine wisdom..."
(see footnote 33)
This shows beyond any doubt that the Christian Church linked Divine Wisdom to Athena.
"It is by no means coincidence that the chief temples of Pagan Athens and Christian Constantinople were both dedicated to Wisdom. The Parthenon as the shrine of the Goddess Athena, Goddess of Wisdom, and Justinian's Great Church both showed respect for "Sophia" which has always been one of the chief traits of the Greek mind."
(see footnote 34)

The Return of Athena--- reclaiming our universal protectress

Footnote 1
Footnote 2
Footnote 3
Footnote 4
Footnote 5
Footnote 6
Footnote 7
Footnote 8
Footnote 9
Footnote 10
Footnote 11
Footnote 12
Footnote 13
Footnote 14
Footnote 15
Footnote 16
Footnote 17
Footnote 18
Footnote 19
Footnote 20
Footnote 21
Footnote 22
Footnote 23
Footnote 24 for Athena statue replica Nashville
Footnote 25 for Nashville Parthenon replica
Footnote 26
Footnote 27
Footnote 28
Footnote 29 (see quote near end)
Footnote 30
Footnote 31
Footnote 32 (see modern date: Dec 4th)
Footnote 33 (para 2)
Footnote 34 (see "The Church of St. Sophia")
Footnote 35
Footnote 36

Footnote 37
Footnote 38
Footnote 39
Footnote 40
Footnote 41
Footnote 42 (see para 5)
Footnote 43 (see Orphic Mysteries)
Footnote 44 (see "Literature and the Arts", near bottom)
Footnote 45 (see "Literature and the Arts", nearer bottom)
Footnote 46
Footnote 47


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