by Evan Randolph

The Return of Athena--- reclaiming our universal protectress

The Athena statue in the Parthenon was mammoth-

Athena Parthenos, Greek goddess of Wisdom. (Parthenos means Virgin). This statue reproduces, with a slight variation in posture, the celebrated Athena Parthenos by Phidias in the Parthenon. The huge statue, approx. 42 feet tall, dominated the interior of the Parthenon in Athens, Greece. She held a shield upright with a snake coiled within it; the other hand held a Nike (Victory). Phidias' massive statue of Athena stood in the Parthenon 438 BCE until 429 CE, a total of 867 years.The reproduction above is 2nd century CE. Athens Museum. New Larousse Encyclopedia of Mythology, p. 107
Athena's dress was covered in gold, the value of which in today's dollars would be $12,000,000. (see Footnote 1)

Here is a full sized reproduction of Athena-

This full-scale replica of Athena Parthenos, Greek goddess of Wisdom, is 41 feet 10 inches tall and weighs 12 tons. The goddess of victory (Nike) in Athena's right hand is 6 feet 4 inches tall. (see Footnote 2 ref Athena statue)
Located in Nashville, TN, Athena Parthenos is the centerpiece of a full scale replica of the ancient Parthenon
(see Footnote 3 ref Parthenon, Nashville)

Here is Evan Randolph (lower right) standing in front of 42 foot statue of Athena
in the Parthenon, Nashville. Note how Evan's Nike sneakers lit up for the occasion.

42 foot Athena as seen from the side between the pillars of the Parthenon, Nashville.


Plato (429-348 BCE) states that the Goddess Athena is both "...a lover of war and a lover of wisdom..." (see Plato Timaeus 24d- footnote 4).
Plato Cratylus 407a-b - "The ancients seem to have had the same belief about Athena as the interpreters of Homer have now; for most of these, in commenting on the poet, say that he represents Athena as mind (nous) and intellect (dianoia); and the maker of names seems to have had a similar conception of her, and indeed he gives her the still higher title of "divine intelligence" (hê theou noêsis), seeming to say: This is she who has the mind of God (Theonoa)..."
(see footnote 4)
Plato wrote about wisdom in a female context; she can be found in all her purity in the other world, where the souls go after death. (Plato, Phaedo, The Harvard Classics 1909, p. 57)

800 BC- The Greek goddess of Wisdom Athena appeared 162 times in HOMER'S ODYSSEY. She came down from heaven and provided significant help to Odysseus in his earthly travails. (see footnote 5)
It is interesting that Athena & Odysseus planned the recovery of Odysseus's wife and home on Apollo's grand festal day (Odyssey 20:307). This change around of Odysseus's fortunes, long in decline and now on the upswing, occured at the Winter Solstice, then December 25th--Apollo's festal day! (see Footnote 6).
Apollo was a sun god, a healer-god, the god of divination and prophecy, shepherd-god, in addition to archer-god
(New Larousse Encyclopedia of Mythology- pg 113) and was born on December 25th, the winter solstice.

Why was Athena so special?

She helped to create mankind- "Prometheus is holding a man whom he created; Athena breathes soul into him in the form of a butterfly." Sarcophagos 270 AD, Musee Capitolina--see footnote 7

9000 BC- She founded Greece.--- 1,000 years later, she founded Egypt- Plato Timeaeus 23d--see
footnote 8

Protector of Cities- Athens (footnote 9), Constantinople (footnote 10), Rome (footnote 11)

Intercessor between God the Father & man- Athena asks Zeus to help Odysseus: "Olympian Zeus, have you no care for him in your lofty heart?" Odyssey 1: 72. Athena appeals to Zeus on behalf of Odysseus: "Father, son of Cronus, our high and mighty king, now let me ask you a question...tell me the secrets hidden in your mind." Odyssey 24: 522

She helps & protects you
- Athena to Odysseus: "Surely I'll stand beside you, not forget you, not when the day arrives for us to do our work." Odyssey 13: 449

Athena & Odysseus discuss tactics/strategy- "Then down they sat by the sacred olive's trunk to plot the death of the high and mighty suitors. The bright eyed goddess Athena led the way..." Odyssey 13: 426

She grants glory- Nestor to Athena: "Now, O Queen, be gracious! Give us high renown..." Odyssey 3: 425
Odysseus planning against Cyclops: "would Athena give me glory?" Odyssey 9: 355

Her mind knows all things- Odysseus to Athena: "You know it all." Odyssey 13: 475

She loves you- Nestor to Telemachus
: "If only the bright-eyed goddess chose to love you just as she lavished care on brave Odysseus...I've never seen the immortals show so much affection as Pallas openly showed him..." Odyssey 3: 247

She has power- Phantom (Athena) to Penelope: "She has power- Pallas Athena." Odyssey 4: 931. Odysseus wins fight: "thanks to Athena's superhuman power." Odyssey 8: 584

She provides immortality-
Athena gifted Diomede with immortality---- (see footnote 12)
"Dionysos is then reborn due to Athena---" (see footnote 13)

And what happened to Athena?

Statement 1
Athena written into Jewish Wisdom texts-

We know Plato (429-347 BC), a student of Socrates, developed the idea that Athena was the nous, or mind of God. Homer is mentioned in this connection. (Plato Cractylus 407a-b- see footnote 4).
Plato states that the Goddess Athena is both "...a lover of war and a lover of wisdom..." (see Plato Timaeus 24d footnote 4).
Plato wrote about wisdom in a female context, she can be found in all her purity in the other world, where the souls go after death. (Plato, Phaedo, The Harvard Classics, p. 57)
Plato mentions the immortality of the soul, which separates from the body after death. (Plato, Phaedo, p. 111)
Plato quotes Homer (Odyssey) in three places in his Phaedo, showing his respect for the poet.

Jewish-Hellenic Biblical writers in 100 BC wrote the Wisdom texts in Greek in Alexandria, these include Proverbs and the apocraphal book Wisdom of Solomon. These writers sought to fuse Greek allegory into Jewish Old Testament texts.
The Jewish-Hellenic Biblical writers admired the ideas of Plato & Homer. They incorporated Plato's concept of the soul into the wisdom texts (Wis 3: 1-19). This thinking was foreign to the Old Testament and the Jewish resurrection of the body (Dan. 12.2).
They appropriated many of Athena's attributes outlined in the Odyssey (or elsewhere) and labelled them as Divine Wisdom--here are examples (compare to Athena's attibutes above):

She helped to create mankind- "...when he prescribed its limits for the sea and knit together earth's foundations. Then I was at his side each day, his darling and delight, playing in his presence continually, playing on the earth, when he had finished it, while my delight was in mankind." Proverbs 8:29-31

Intercessor between God the Father & man- "...who ever learnt to know thy purposes, unless thou hadst given him wisdom and sent thy holy spirit down from heaven on high? Thus it was that those on earth were set upon the right path, and men were taught what pleases thee; thus they were preserved by wisdom." Wisdom 9: 17- 18

She helps & protects you
- "Through me kings are sovereign and governors make just laws. Through me princes act like princes, from me all rulers on earth derive their nobility." Proverbs 8:15-16
"Wisdom it was who kept guard over the first father of the human race, when he alone had yet been made..." Wisdom 10:1

Divine Wisdom adept at tactics/strategy- "Wisdom prevails over strength, knowledge over brute force; for wars are won by skillful strategy, and victory is the fruit of long planning." Proverbs 24: 5-6

She grants glory- "In my hands are riches and honour..." Proverbs 8:18

Her mind knows all things- "For she knows and understands all things..." Wisdom 9:11

She loves you-
"Those who love me I love...." Proverbs 8:17

She has power- "I have force, I have ability; understanding and power are mine." Proverbs 8: 14

She provides immortality-
"Through her I shall have immortality,---" Wisdom 8:13
"in kinship with wisdom lies immortality---" Wisdom 8:17

[NEW DATA]-- Jewish-Hellenic Biblical writers incorporated Homer's Odyssey directly into the Wisdom of Solomon 4:10 - 5:22 (in the Septuagint)
Athena, Greek goddess of wisdom, who played such a key role in saving Odysseus in the Odyssey, now reappears as Divine Wisdom in the Jewish-Hellenic Wisdom texts.
Click for supporting documentation--[THIS IS A NEW FINDING- NOT LISTED ON GOOGLE]


Statement 2
Despite misogynist leanings, Paul of Tarsus 50 CE incorporates Wisdom into the Christian story-
[ I suspect Paul was aware of Homer's Odyssey (700 BC), Plato's Phaedo (325 BC), & the Jewish-Hellenic Wisdom texts (100 BC). Paul quotes from the 3rd century BC Hellenistic poet Aratus when speaking in Athens (Acts 17:28). Among other works, Aratus had written an edition of Homer's ODYSSEY---see Footnote 14. Therefore Paul was well aware of Athena's contributions in restoring Odysseus' fortunes in Homer's ODYSSEY.]

Paul of Tarsus 50 CE had a problem with the feminine-
He stated "As in all congregations of God's people, women should not address the meeting. They have no licence to speak, ..." (1 Cor 14:34)
"It is a shocking thing that a woman should address the congregation." (1 Cor 14:35)
"It is a good thing for a man to have nothing to do with women:..." (1 Cor 7:1)

Paul attacks idols in a trip 50 CE trip to Athens where the massive gold statue of Athena in the Parthenon could be seen from miles away. "He was exasperated to see how the city was full of idols." (Acts 17:16) --See Footnote 15.
Paul seems to attack Athena directly when he states to the Athenians "...we ought not to suppose that the deity is like an image in gold or silver or stone, shaped by human craftsmanship and design." (Acts 17:29)
Paul referred to "those dumb heathen gods,..." (1 Cor 12:2)
[Editors note--not many years later, and to this day, Catholic Churches are full of statues of Jesus & Mary.]

Paul in 50 CE reassigns Greek Wisdom (who our research shows was Athena) to Christ-
First, he mentions "...God's hidden wisdom..." (1 Corinthians 2:7). I suspect Paul wishes to be unclear about the identity of hidden wisdom, particularly as a divine feminine entity.
Paul tells us that wisdom is a Greek, not a Jewish phenomenon: "...Jews call for miracles, Greeks look for wisdom..."
(1 Corinthians 1:23).
Concerning Jesus Christ, Paul states: "...God has made him our wisdom..." (1 Corinthians 1:30). "...he is the power of God and the wisdom of God..." (1 Corinthians 1:24)
OUR wisdom suggests that for Christians, Christ is now "our" wisdom.
However, as of Paul's writing, the Greek goddess of wisdom Athena still stood in the Parthenon.

Paul uses Plato's ideas to describe life after death- Plato in his Phaedo (325 BC) shows the soul to be immortal and separates from the body at death.
Paul copies this theme "sown as an animal body, it is raised as a spiritual body." (1 Cor 15: 44)
"...the dead will rise immortal..."
(1 Cor 15:52) "
This is a Greek concept and differs from the Old Testament Jewish resurrection of the body (Dan. 12.2).
We have shown above that Plato developed the idea that Athena was the nous, or mind of God. Homer is mentioned in this connection. (Plato Cractylus 407a-b- see footnote 4).
Plato states that the Goddess Athena is both "...a lover of war and a lover of wisdom..." (see Plato Timaeus 24d footnote 4).
Plato wrote about wisdom in a female context; she can be found in all her purity in the other world, where the souls go after death. (Plato, Phaedo, The Harvard Classics, p. 57)

Paul rides two horses at the same time-
Paul attacks the pagans when he refers to "those dumb heathen gods,..." (1 Cor 12:2)
At the same time, Paul embraces pagan thinking when he esposes Plato's thoughts ref the immortality of the soul and when he assigns the attributes of Greek wisdom to Christ.

"Christian antipathy to paganism is ungrateful, since it derives every element of its theology, ritual and symbolism, along with its sacred scriptures, from that source; it reconstructed its entire dogma over the model of pagan, that is, of Platonic and Aristotelian philosophy; it has perpetuated the celebration of most of the pagan religious festivals; and, finally, it has adopted, as its own policy, the pagan emphasis on esotericism." See footnote 16

Statement 2A
Athena as seen through the eyes of Constantine the Great (272-372 CE)
Constantine "diminished none of the priveleges of the sacred virgins---" Quote from Symmachus reference the late emporer Constantine's policy. See footnote 17

The circular Temple of Vesta- The Ancient City, Peter Connolly & Hazel Dodge, Oxford Press, p. 172
The priestly office of the College of Vestal Virgins was created by the second King of Rome. The Vestal Virgins
guarded the Palladium and kept the sacred fire burning. (see footnote 18)
The Palladium was an image of Pallas Athena on which the safety of the city depended (see footnote 19),
In Greek & Roman mythology, Odysseus and Diomedes stole the Palladium from Troy and thus
defeated the city. (see footnote 19)
The College of Vestal Virgins ended in 391 CE, when disbanded by Theodosius I. (see footnote 18)

Shortly thereafter, in 410 CE- the Visigoths sacked Rome (see footnote 20)

Constantine defeated Maxentius at Milvan Bridge in 312 CE. The Arch of Constantine was erected in 315 CE to celebrate this victory. The medallions and copy on this Arch show Constantine's appreciation of the support of Athena & Nike in his victory. (see footnote 21) [THIS IS A NEW FINDING- NOT LISTED ON GOOGLE]

Athena in chariot with Nike above rising above opposing force. This medallion appears on Constantine's Arch
directly above scene of Constantine's army leaving Rome to meet Maxentius. (see footnote 22)

Athena in chariot with Nike above coming down on opposing force. This medallion appears
directly above scene of Constantine's army after victory entering Rome in triumph. (see footnote 22)

Here is the complete scene showing Athena & Nike directly above Constantine's army
entering Rome in triumph, Constantine in his chariot on the left.
(see footnote 23)

Constantine honors Athena goddess of wisdom when he states on the arch (lines 3 & 4 above):
"...quod instinctu divinitatis mentis magnitudine..."
this translated: "...since through divine inspiration and great wisdom..."
(for inscription- see footnote 24, translation- see footnote 25)

In 330 CE Constantine moved his seat of government from Rome to Byzantium, later called Constantinople. (see footnote 26)
Constantine the Great.erected the first church of Hagia Sophia (Divine Wisdom) in Byzantium.(see footnote 27)
Few structures remain of Constantine's Byzantium except a huge column which he erected.(see footnote 28)
This column stands 120 feet high. Constantine topped it with a colossal bronze statue of Apollo, supposedly the work of Phidias. Underneath this pillar, Constantine had buried the Palladium which he had removed from Rome. (see footnote 29)

Constantine's 120 foot column in Constantinople with the Palladium buried underneath. (see footnote 30)

Constantine in 325 CE presided over the Council of Nicea. The significant result of this Council was the adoption of the doctrine of the Trinity. Christianity used the thinking of Plato to formulate its Trinity doctrine. (see footnote 31)
As the learned trinitarian historian Mosheim states concerning Origen and the Platonizing movement 200-250CE:

"A new class of philosophers had grown up in Egypt ...they much preferred Plato, and embraced most of his dogmas concerning God, the human soul, and the universe." (see footnote 31)
"The Christian bishops introduced, with but slight alterations, into the Christian worship, those rites and institutions by which formerly the Greeks and Romans and others had manifested their piety and reverence toward their imaginary deities; supposing that the people would more readily embrace Christianity if they perceived the rites handed down to them from their fathers still existing unchanged among the Christians, and saw that Christ and the martyrs were worshipped in the same manner as formerly their gods were." (see footnote 31)
"There was, accordingly, little difference in these times between the public worship of the Christians and that of the Greeks and Romans." (see footnote 31)
"It will be noted ... that the most distinguished "Christian" teachers of the 4th century looked to Origen and the Platonic philosophy as their model. Any doctrines therefore - such as the Trinity - formulated at this time are bound to be more pagan than Christian." (see footnote 31)

Plato speaks of 3 specific Gods-- We read in Plato's Euthydemus in a dialog between Socrates and Dionysodorus:
"No matter, said Dionysodorus, for you admit that you have Apollo, Zeus, and Athene.
Certainly, I said.
And they are your Gods, he said.
Yes, I said, my lords and ancestors." (see footnote 32)
Therefore Plato identifies Zeus, Apollo & Athena as his Trinity.


Statement 3
Early Christians destroy Athena's statue in the Parthenon in 429 CE
Athena installed in her Temple the Parthenon in Athens in 438 BCE, atop the Acropolis. (see footnote 33)
Athena remained enshrined inside the Parthenon until 429 CE (a total of 867 years), when "The Temple of Goddess Athena (Parthenon) on the Acropolis of Athens is sacked." (see Footnote 34)
"The Christians, under the emperor Theodosius II, removed the statue to Byzantium, where it was stripped of its
gold and destroyed without a trace."
(see Footnote 35)

Statement 4
Proclus (412-485 CE) discovers Athena, Goddess of Wisdom
In my internet searches, I uncovered a 5th century philosopher named PROCLUS (412-485 CE). Born in
Byzantium/Constantinople, Proclus felt the Goddess Athena appeared to him early in his life, urging him to study
philosophy, and later imploring that he move to Athens. He followed her urgings, and eventually became the leader of Plato's Academy in Athens. While at the Academy, Proclus became familiar with the mysteries of Theurgy (see definition below). When the Goddess Athena was removed from the Parthenon by the Christians, she appeared to Proclus and said "they turned me out of my Temple, now I come to live with you. Since then She lives in our homes and our hearts." (see footnote 36)
Proclus was a pagan, and his world was under attack by the Christians, who at this time (314-860 CE ) were in the process of destroying Pagan Temples, burning all non-Christian books, and killing pagan spiritual leaders. The Christians under Emperor Theodsius sacked the Parthenon in 429 CE. (see footnote 37 )
Proclus wrote a poem to Athena imploring Her to save him. (see footnote 38) His life was clearly in danger. (We note
Proclus died of old age at the Academy in 485 CE--see footnote 36).

What were the mysteries of Theurgy practiced by Proclus? (see footnote 39)
"Theurgy, from the Greek theourgia, means literally something like 'actuating the divine' and refers to actions that induce or bring about the presence of a divine or supernatural being, whether in an artifact or a person...The practice was commended and followed, in the third and later centuries, by certain Neoplatonist philosophers and their disciples." (see footnote 39)

Proclus, who felt himself in communication with Athena, was probably trying to articulate the phenomenon (shown so clearly by Homer) of Odysseus being assisted by Athena.

Statement 5
527-565 CE- CHRISTIAN ROMAN EMPEROR JUSTINIAN (RULING FROM CONSTANTINOPLE) EMBRACED CLASSICAL GREEK THINKING---he rebuilt the magnificant church Hagia Sofia (Divine Wisdom) in Constantinople which was described at the time using thinly veiled references to Athena.
Click here for supporting documentation

Statement 6
Due to the intercession of the Theotokos (Virgin Mary), the city is saved. "While the Emperor of Byzantium Heracleios was on an expedition to fight the aggression of the Persians on their own grounds, there appeared outside the walls of Constantinople barbaric hordes, mostly Avars. The siege lasted a few months, and it was apparent that the outnumbered troops of the Queen City were reaching desperation. However as history records, the faith of the people worked the impossible. The Venerable Patriarch Sergius with the Clergy and the Official of Byzantium Vonos, endlessly marched along the great walls of Constantinople with an Icon of the Theotokos in hand, and bolstered the faith of the defenders of freedom. The miracle came soon after. Unexpectedly, as the chronicler narrates, a great storm with huge tidal waves destroyed most of the fleet of the enemy, and full retreat ensued.

The faithful of Constantinople spontaneously filled the Church of the Theotokos at Vlachernae on the Golden Horn, and
the Patriarch Sergius officiating, they prayed all night singing praises to the Virgin Mary without sitting. Hence the title of the
Hymn "Akathistos", in Greek meaning 'not seated'.

The Akathist Hymn to the Theotokos


Unto you, O Theotokos, invincible Champion, your City, in thanksgiving ascribes the victory for the deliverance
from sufferings. And having your might unassailable, free us from all dangers, so that we may cry unto you:

Rejoice, O Bride Ever-Virgin.

Rejoice, Vessel of the Wisdom of God. Rejoice, Treasury of His providence. "

See Footnote 40 for additional details on Akathist Hymn-
Here is Theotokos performing in Athena fashion to protect Constantinople.
In the Akathist Hymn, Theotokos (Virgin Mary) is described as an "invincible Champion" with "might unassailable" who saves the city. The Virgin Mary is assuming Athena's role in protecting the city.

Statement 7
"The most important symbol of Greek heathenism, the Parthenon, was changed in the seventh century into a church for Aghia Sophia, the divine wisdom..."
(see footnote 41)
This shows beyond any doubt that the Christian Church linked Divine Wisdom to Athena.
"It is by no means coincidence that the chief temples of Pagan Athens and Christian Constantinople were both dedicated to Wisdom. The Parthenon as the shrine of the Goddess Athena, Goddess of Wisdom, and Justinian's Great Church both showed respect for "Sophia" which has always been one of the chief traits of the Greek mind."
(see footnote 42)

Statement 8
Click here for details & to view fresco-
"The Jesuit description from 1735 in view of the woman in Pallas' golden armour... She is identified as Pallas by her armour and helmet. Pallas is the goddess of Wisdom, Mary as the seat of Wisdom is also in this respect the saintly Pallas. Pallas and Minerva were, in antiquity and the baroque period, quite often identified with one another. Minerva also represents Wisdom, but also faith, justice, innocence, grace, and devotion to Mary..."
This shows that the Catholic Church linked Athena to Divine Wisdom..

The Return of Athena--- reclaiming our universal protectress

Footnote 1
Footnote 2 for Athena statue replica Nashville
Footnote 3 for Nashville Parthenon replica
Footnote 4
Footnote 5
Footnote 6
Footnote 7
Footnote 8
Footnote 9
Footnote 10
Footnote 11 (see Palladium being carried off by Diomedes)
Footnote 12 (see para 5)
Footnote 13 (see Orphic Mysteries)
Footnote 14
Footnote 15
Footnote 16 (see quote near end)
Footnote 17
Footnote 18
Footnote 19
Footnote 20
Fotnote 21
Footnote 22
Footnote 23
Footnote 24
Click Footnote 22--same source
Footnote 25
Footnote 26
Footnote 27
Footnote 28
Footnote 29
Footnote 30
Footnote 31
Footnote 32
Footnote 33
Footnote 34
Footnote 35 (see modern date: Dec 4th)
Footnote 36 (see The Life of Proclus)
Footnote 37
Footnote 38
Footnote 39
Footnote 40
Footnote 41 (para 2)
Footnote 42 (see "The Church of St. Sophia")
Footnote 43 (see "Literature and the Arts", near bottom)
Footnote 44 (see "Literature and the Arts", nearer bottom)
Footnote 45
Footnote 46
Footnote 47


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