1- psuche is spelled as follows in ancient Greek:

2- Homer first used psuche to describe "ghosts" in Hades:

The Odyssey- Book 24, line 35

3- Plato uses pusche to describe Soul, Athena guided men's Souls:

Critias 109b,c,d --Athena guides our Souls (see footnote 48- Plato's works)
Once upon a time the gods were taking over by lot the whole earth according to its regions,...and they settled their countries; and when they had thus settled them, they reared us up, even as herdsmen rear their flocks, to be their cattle and nurslings; only it was not our bodies that they constrained by bodily force, like shepherds guiding their flocks with stroke of staff, but they directed from the stern where the living creature is easiest to turn about, laying hold on the soul by persuasion, as by a rudder, according to their own disposition; and thus they drove and steered all the mortal kind. Now in other regions others of the gods had their allotments and ordered the affairs, but inasmuch as Hephaestus and Athena were of a like nature, being born of the same father, and agreeing, moreover, in their love of wisdom and of craftsmanship, they both took for their joint portion this land of ours as being naturally congenial and adapted for virtue and for wisdom, and therein they planted as native to the soil men of virtue and ordained to their mind the mode of government.
theoi gar hapasan gên pote kata tous topous dielanchanon... kai katoikisantes, hoion nomês poimnia, ktêmata kai thremmata heautôn hêmas etrephon, plên ou sômasi sômata biazomenoi, kathaper poimenes ktênê plêgêi nemontes, all' hêi malista eustrophon zôion, ek prumnês apeuthunontes, hoion oiaki peithoi psuchês ephaptomenoi kata tên autôn dianoian, houtôs agontes to thnêton pan ekubernôn. alloi men oun kat' allous topous klêrouchêsantes theôn ekeina ekosmoun, Hêphaistos de koinên kai Athêna phusin echontes, hama men adelphên ek tautou patros, hama de philosophiai philotechniai te epi ta auta elthontes, houtô mian amphô lêxin tênde tên chôran eilêchaton hôs oikeian kai prosphoron aretêi kai phronêsei pephukuian, andras de agathous empoiêsantes autochthonas epi noun ethesan tên tês politeias taxin:

Timaeus 42d -- Athena/Hephaestus (young gods) guide Souls:
He delivered over to the young gods the task of molding mortal bodies, and of framing and controlling all the rest of the human soul which it was still necessary to add, together with all that belonged thereto,

tous d' eis talla hosa organa chronou: to de meta ton sporon tois neois paredôken theois sômata plattein thnêta, to t' epiloipon, hoson eti ên psuchês anthrôpinês deon

Timaeus 34c -- Soul rules body
God, however, constructed Soul to be older than Body and prior in birth and excellence, since she was to be the mistress and ruler and it the ruled;

ho de kai genesei kai aretêi proteran kai presbuteran psuchên sômatos hôs despotin kai arxousan arxomenou

Timaeus 70a --Soul relates to courage, spirit
That part of the soul, then, which partakes of courage and spirit, since it is a lover of victory, they planted more near to the head,
to metechon oun tês psuchês andreias kai thumou, philonikon on, katôikisan enguterô tês kephalês metaxu tôn phrenôn te kai auchenos,

4- Athena breathes Soul into first man

"The creation of mankind. Prometheus is holding a man whom he created; Athena breathes soul into him in the form of a
butterfly." [Sarcophagos 270 A.D., Musee Capitolina]-see footnote 49

Rome, Museo Capitolino- see footnote 50

5- Proclus (412-485 CE) prays to Athena to save his soul-

Hymn to Athena- Proclus' Hymns- Berg, R.M. van den (Rudolphus Maria), 1940 pp. 276-278

6- Orphic Hymn 28 to Athena--she inspires Souls

English translation by Thomas Taylor- see footnote 51

Greek translation Hymnes & Discours- Sacres p. 100

Thus Athena guides mens souls (psuche)

7- Biblical references:

God ( I believe this to be Divine Wisdom ) breathes soul into man:
(Genesis 2:7 Septuagint)

Divine Wisdom guided Adam (Wisdom 10:1 Septuagint)

Divine wisdom guides souls : (Ecclus 51: 13-28 Septuagint)


Thus we see both Athena & Divine Wisdom Guide Souls.

Divine Wisdom is "of the same substance" as psuche/Soul -

Ecclesiasticus 24: 1-4 ---Septuagint

St Augustine claims psuche is "their spirit" (the pagan spirit), not the Holy Spirit. He acknowledges that psuche is "of the same substance" as Divine Wisdom when he quotes Ecclus 24:3 (see above)

St Augustine makes a distinction between "their spirit" and the Holy Spirit.
City of God by Saint Augustine, Book 13, Chap 24, p. 439

St Augustine recognizes Soul of nature as the third part of the Platonic Trinity, which he refers to as the Holy Spirit.
"For Plotinus places the soul of nature after the intellect of the Father, while Porphyry, making it the mean, does not place it after, but between the others. No doubt he spoke according to his light, or as he thought expedient; but we assert that the Holy Spirit is the Spirit not of the Father only, nor of the Son only, but of both."

"The Platonists of the Alexandrian and Athenian schools, from Plotinus to Proclus, are at one in recognizing in God three principles or hypostases: 1st, the One or the Good, which is the Father; 2nd, the Intelligence or Word, which is the Son; 3rd, the Soul, which is the universal principle of life. But as to the nature and order of these hypostases, the Alexandrians are no longer at one with the school of Athens."
The City of God, Book X, Chapter 23
This Soul of nature is Athena/psuche


"Their spirit" (psuche/Divine wisdom) differs from Holy Spirit (pneuma)-

The Holy Spirit (pneuma) did not exist prior to the Christian era according to Jesus (John 7:39):
(see footnote 52- New Testament for Biblical texts English & Greek)
[39] But he said this about the Spirit, which those believing in him were to receive. For the Holy Spirit was not yet given,
because Jesus wasn't yet glorified.

[39] Touto de eipen peri tou pneumatos hou emellon lambanein hoi pisteusantes eis auton: oupô gar ên pneuma, hoti Iêsous oupô edoxasthê.

St Paul differentiates between the first Adam (psuche) and the second Adam (pneuma) in 1 Cor 15:45:
[45] So also it is written, "The first man, Adam, became a living soul." The last Adam became a life-giving spirit.
[45] houtôs kai gegraptai Egeneto ho prôtos anthrôpos Adam eis psuchên zôsan: ho eschatos Adam eis pneuma


psuche/Divine Wisdom was the pagan "their spirit" referred to by St Augustine. This force actively guided men's Souls, as exemplified by Athena and her resurrection of Odysseus' life in The Odyssey.

Holy Spirit (Counselor)- as defined by Jesus in John 14:26- replaced "their spirit":

[26] But the Counselor, the Holy Spirit, whom the Father will send in my name, he will teach you all things, and will remind
you of all that I said to you.

ho de paraklêtos, [26] to pneuma to hagion ho pempsei ho patêr en tôi onomati mou, ekeinos humas didaxei panta kai hupomnêsei humas panta ha eipon humin egô.

Thus the guide of Souls (Athena/Divine Wisdom) was repaced by the Counselor (Holy Spirit).

I believe Constantine's original Holy Ghost was the pagan "their spirit" of Athena/Divine Wisdom






Backup 5
527-565 CE- CHRISTIAN ROMAN EMPEROR JUSTINIAN (RULING FROM CONSTANTINOPLE) EMBRACED CLASSICAL GREEK THINKING---he built the magnificant church Hagia Sofia (Divine Wisdom) in Constantinople which was described at the time using thinly veiled references to Athena.
"In time, however, Christian thinkers began to realize that there was much to be carried over into Christian
teaching from the Classical Greeks. Socrates and Plato, for example, often seemed to approximate Christian thought...
However, the fathers of the Christian Church and other later thinkers had the insight to perceive that it was possible to make some basic distinctions, and separate those elements from classical literature that were not in accord with Christianity, keeping all the rest...
This conviction brought about the establishment of a "new" Christian culture, one utilizing all the best writings of the
classical Greek thought and fusing it into the writings and teachings of the Orthodox Church.
The process of such a fusion took centuries, and its final step was not to be completed till the age of Justinian...
Justinian decided to put an end to the idea of Paganism as heresy. He saw, however, that there was a major problem in the manner in which Pagan writing was being taught in the schools and universities. In particular, it was being taught in two different ways.
In the schools of Constantinople, Gaza and Alexandria, the classics were being taught by teachers who were themselves
One center of learning that even until Justinian's time had never associated itself with Christianity was Athens. There the
professors were still Pagan and were teaching the classics from entirely the Pagan point of view. This was found
unacceptable. Not the fact that they were teaching classical works, but that they were themselves not Christians. Justinian
gave them the opportunity to become Christian but they refused. As a result Justinian closed down their schools in 529, his second year as emperor...
Constantinople produced a number of distinguished literary figures in Justinian's time. Many of their works were largely influenced by the teachings of Aristotle, Plato and other ancient Greek philosophers and play writers, whom they had all studied...
Paul the Silentiary was also in this list of distinguished scholars at the time of Justinian..."
(see footnote 36)
Paul wrote in the style of Homer. "He wrote a famous description of St. Sophia in 887 hexameters, about the
length of one of the longer books of Homer. Homer became the vehicle for the praise of the noblest church in the empire.
Paul's monograph on Agia Sophia reflects a real Christian feeling via the subtlety and similes of the Homeric style."
(see footnote 37)
"The poem was recited at the second dedication of the church (A.D. 562), in the episcopal hall of the patriarchate."
(see footnote 38)
"Paul the Silentiary wrote encomium [hymn of praise] The Magnificence of Hagia Sophia, which became famous..."
(see Paul's poem below--see footnote 39)
(Note below the thinly veiled references to Athena Goddess of Wisdom, frequently portrayed wearing a helmet,
known as "the protector of the city", and also to the Homeric echo of Odysseus in his wanderings in the

"Above all rises into the immeasurable air the great helmet [of the dome], which, bending over, like the radiant heavens,
embraces the church. And at the highest part, at the crown, was depicted the cross, the protector of the city. And
wondrous it is to see how the dome gradually rises wide below, and growing less as it reaches higher. it does not however
spring upwards to a sharp point, but is like the firmament which rests on air, though the dome is fixed on the strong backs of the arches....
A thousand others [lamps] within the temple show their gleaming light, hanging aloft by chains of many windings.
Thus through the spaces of the great church come rays of light, expelling clouds of care, and filling the mind with joy. The
sacred light cheers all: even the sailor guiding his bark on the waves, leaving behind him the unfriendly billows of the
raging Pontus, and winding a sinuous course amidst creeks and rocks, with heart fearful at the dangers of his nightly
wanderings-perchance he has left the Aegean and guides his ship against adverse currents in the Hellespont, awaiting with taut forestay the onslaught of a storm from Africa-does not guide his laden vessel by the light of Cynosure, or the circling Bear, but by the divine light of the church Itself. Yet not Only does it guide the merchant at night, like the rays from the Pharos on the coast of Africa, but it also shows the way to the living God."
(see footnote 39)











[NEW DATA]-- Jewish-Hellenic Biblical writers incorporated Homer's Odyssey directly into the Wisdom of Solomon.
Athena, Greek goddess of wisdom, who played such a key role in saving Odysseus in the Odyssey, now reappears as Divine Wisdom in the Jewish-Hellenic Wisdom texts.
I believe certain passages in Wisdom 4:10-5:22 in the Septuagint were"borrowed" from Homer's Odyssey (written 800 BC).
The Book of Wisdom (one of the books of the Apocrypha in the Septuagint) was written in Greek by an Alexandrian Jew a short while before the Christian era.
These passages describe a "righteous man" in Wis. 4:10-11, which my New English Bible suggests could be Enoch, and refers the reader to Gen. 5:21-24. I also located Enoch references in Sir. 44:16, Hebrews 11:5, and in the second century B.C.E. non-canonical apocryphal Book of Enoch.
The action described relating to the "righteous man" in the Septuagint Wis. 4:10-5:22
matches neither the Enoch references in the Bible nor in the Book of Enoch. But the action described in Wis. 4:10-5:22 does match Odysseus of The Odyssey.

Here are my findings in the Septuagint, written before the Christian era. Clearly, these passages show the Homeric influence.

"He pleased God, and was beloved of him: so that living among sinners he was translated. Yea, speedily was he taken away, lest that wickedness should alter his understanding, or deceit beguile his soul. For the bewitching of naughtiness doth obscure things that are honest: and the wandering of concupiscence doth undermine the simple mind. He, being made perfect in a short time, fulfilled a long time: for his soul pleased the Lord: therefore hasted he to take him away from among the wicked." Wis.4:10-14
This passage directly echoes Odysseus being saved by Athena from the clutches of Calypso/Circe and other temptations on his long voyage home.

"Then shall the righteous man stand in great boldness before the face of such as have afflicted him, and made no account of his labours. When they see it, they shall be troubled with terrible fear, and shall be amazed at the strangeness of his salvation, so far beyond all that they looked for. And they repenting and groaning for anguish of spirit shall say within themselves,
This was he, whom we had sometimes in derision, and a proverb of reproach: we fools accounted his life madness, and his end to be without honour: how is he numbered among the children of God, and his lot is among the saints!" Wis.5:1-5
This passage also describes Odysseus confronting the suitors, putting fear in their hearts.
My New English Bible states: " the sight of him there will be terror and confusion, and they will be beside themselves to see him so unexpectedly safe home." Wis.5:2
Is this not Odysseus returning to his great hall and confronting the suitors?

"But the righteous live for evermore; their reward also is with the Lord, and care of them is with the most High. Therefore shall they receive a glorious kingdom, and a beautiful crown from the Lord's hand: for with his right hand shall he cover them, and with his arm shall he protect them. He shall take to him his jealousy for complete armour, and make the creature his weapon for revenge of his enemies. He shall put on righteousness as a breastplate, and true judgment instead of an helmet.... Then shall the right aiming thunderbolts go abroad; and from the clouds, as from a well drawn bow, shall they fly to the mark." Wis.5:15-19, 21
This passage describes the dispatching of the suitors by Odysseus and Athena. Athena is the only god with direct access to Zeus' thunderbolts. I do not believe there are any references to thunderbolts in the Jewish Old Testament.

"Unto you therefore, O Kings, do I speak, that ye may learn wisdom, and not fall away...Wisdom is glorious, and never fadeth away: yea, she is easily seen of them that love her, and found of such as seek her". Wis.6:9 & 12.
"...she shall lead me soberly in my doings, and preserve me in her power." Wis 9:11
These passages describe Athena, goddess of wisdom and follows closely after the Odyssey passages quoted earlier.

Locating Homer's Odyssey written into Wisdom 4:10-5:22 is a startling new finding, as, according to Google, no scholars have published articles that have made this connection before.












Statement 8
Athena appears in Catholic Church fresco (although labelled otherwise by locals)

The Catholic Church of Maria de Victoria, Ingolstadt, Bavaria, Germany has an interesting group of frescoes as described by Thomas Schipflinger in his book SOPHIA-MARIA. A HOLISTIC VISION OF CREATION. Schipflinger states on page 183: "Its frescoes were painted by Cosmas Damien Asam in 1734. The ceiling fresco in the entrance hall portrays Wisdom sitting on a throne amidst royal insignia... Depicted as a Queen, Sophia carries a staff and also a scepter in the form of a snake...The scepter in the form of a snake symbolizes Sophia's healing and salvation-bringing power (the snake is a symbol of Wisdom and healing)."
[Please note snake with Athena in Parthenon statue- see top]
"The entrance hall fresco represents a kind of "prologue" to the ceiling fresco inside the church... There one sees a beam of light descending from God the Father to a woman dressed like Sophia in the entrance hall painting... From Her another beam descends down to Mary, who is kneeling in assent to the message that She is to be the Mother of God... It is further interesting to note that the beam of light reflected to Mary is in turn reflected by Her down to... Pallas Athena, the Greek goddess of Wisdom..." (see subject fresco below)

Verlag Donau Kurier in his book COSMAS DAMIEN ASAM. MARIA DE VICTORIA. INGOLSTADT comments on page 105 (translated from German) below a picture of Athena: "Hit by the holy beam of light: Pallas Athene, Europe..."
The nearby copy reads: "The Jesuit description from 1735 in view of the woman in Pallas' golden armour... She is identified as Pallas by her armour and helmet. Pallas is the goddess of Wisdom, Mary as the seat of Wisdom is also in this respect the saintly Pallas. Pallas and Minerva were, in antiquity and the baroque period, quite often identified with one another. Minerva also represents Wisdom, but also faith, justice, innocence, grace, and devotion to Mary..." (see subject fresco below)

Copyright of "Kurt Scheuerer, Ingolstadt, Bavaria" and:

I believe this 1734 painting also depicts the Duke of Bavaria Charles VII with his 7 year old son Maxmillian III Joseph.
It appears Athena is passing the crown their direction.
25 years later the son was involved in the dedication of the Bavarian Academy. Athena appears again.
"Dedication of volume I of the Proceedings (1763). On the left a
portrait of Elector Maximilian III Joseph; on the right, Pallas Athene
holding the 'heart-shield' (inescutcheon) with the motto 'Tendit ad
aequum' granted to the Academy by the Elector, and, below, the date of
foundation, 28th March 1759."

The Elector in 1759 looks like his father in the 1734 Maria de Victoria painting. This appears on a German web site covering the dedication of The Bavarian Academy in 1759 (see Footnote 47)