527-565 CE- CHRISTIAN ROMAN EMPEROR JUSTINIAN (RULING FROM CONSTANTINOPLE) EMBRACED CLASSICAL GREEK THINKING---he built the magnificant church Hagia Sofia (Divine Wisdom) in Constantinople which was described at the time using thinly veiled references to Athena.
"In time, however, Christian thinkers began to realize that there was much to be carried over into Christian
teaching from the Classical Greeks. Socrates and Plato, for example, often seemed to approximate Christian thought...
However, the fathers of the Christian Church and other later thinkers had the insight to perceive that it was possible to make some basic distinctions, and separate those elements from classical literature that were not in accord with Christianity, keeping all the rest...
This conviction brought about the establishment of a "new" Christian culture, one utilizing all the best writings of the
classical Greek thought and fusing it into the writings and teachings of the Orthodox Church. The process of such a fusion took centuries, and its final step was not to be completed till the age of Justinian...
Justinian decided to put an end to the idea of Paganism as heresy. He saw, however, that there was a major problem in the manner in which Pagan writing was being taught in the schools and universities. In particular, it was being taught in two different ways.
In the schools of Constantinople, Gaza and Alexandria, the classics were being taught by teachers who were themselves
One center of learning that even until Justinian's time had never associated itself with Christianity was Athens. There the
professors were still Pagan and were teaching the classics from entirely the Pagan point of view. This was found
unacceptable. Not the fact that they were teaching classical works, but that they were themselves not Christians. Justinian
gave them the opportunity to become Christian but they refused. As a result Justinian closed down their schools in 529, his second year as emperor...
Constantinople produced a number of distinguished literary figures in Justinian's time. Many of their works were largely influenced by the teachings of Aristotle, Plato and other ancient Greek philosophers and play writers, whom they had all studied...
Paul the Silentiary was also in this list of distinguished scholars at the time of Justinian..."
(see footnote 44)
562 CE---PAUL THE SILENTIARY WROTE IN THE STYLE OF HOMER IN PRAISE OF JUSTINIAN'S NEW CHURCH AGIA SOPHIA (DIVINE WISDOM)---USING THINLY VEILED REFERENCES TO ATHENA:
Paul wrote in the style of Homer. "He wrote a famous description of St. Sophia in 887 hexameters, about the
length of one of the longer books of Homer. Homer became the vehicle for the praise of the noblest church in the empire. Paul's monograph on Agia Sophia reflects a real Christian feeling via the subtlety and similes of the Homeric style."
(see footnote 45)
"The poem was recited at the second dedication of the church (A.D. 562), in the episcopal hall of the patriarchate."
(see footnote 46)
"Paul the Silentiary wrote encomium [hymn of praise] The Magnificence of Hagia Sophia, which became famous..."
(see Paul's poem below--see footnote 47)
(Note below the thinly veiled references to Athena Goddess of Wisdom, frequently portrayed wearing a helmet,
known as "the protector of the city", and also to the Homeric echo of Odysseus in his wanderings in the
"Above all rises into the immeasurable air the great helmet [of the dome], which, bending over, like the radiant heavens,
embraces the church. And at the highest part, at the crown, was depicted the cross, the protector of the city. And
wondrous it is to see how the dome gradually rises wide below, and growing less as it reaches higher. it does not however
spring upwards to a sharp point, but is like the firmament which rests on air, though the dome is fixed on the strong backs of the arches....
A thousand others [lamps] within the temple show their gleaming light, hanging aloft by chains of many windings.
Thus through the spaces of the great church come rays of light, expelling clouds of care, and filling the mind with joy. The
sacred light cheers all: even the sailor guiding his bark on the waves, leaving behind him the unfriendly billows of the
raging Pontus, and winding a sinuous course amidst creeks and rocks, with heart fearful at the dangers of his nightly
wanderings-perchance he has left the Aegean and guides his ship against adverse currents in the Hellespont, awaiting with taut forestay the onslaught of a storm from Africa-does not guide his laden vessel by the light of Cynosure, or the circling Bear, but by the divine light of the church Itself. Yet not Only does it guide the merchant at night, like the rays from the Pharos on the coast of Africa, but it also shows the way to the living God."
(see footnote 47)
DATA]-- Jewish-Hellenic Biblical writers incorporated Homer's
Odyssey directly into the Wisdom of Solomon.
Athena, Greek goddess of wisdom, who played such a key role in saving Odysseus in the Odyssey, now reappears as Divine Wisdom in the Jewish-Hellenic Wisdom texts.
I believe certain passages in Wisdom 4:10-5:22 in the Septuagint were"borrowed" from Homer's Odyssey (written 800 BC).
The Book of Wisdom (one of the books of the Apocrypha in the Septuagint) was written in Greek by an Alexandrian Jew a short while before the Christian era.
These passages describe a "righteous man" in Wis. 4:10-11, which my New English Bible suggests could be Enoch, and refers the reader to Gen. 5:21-24. I also located Enoch references in Sir. 44:16, Hebrews 11:5, and in the second century B.C.E. non-canonical apocryphal Book of Enoch.
The action described relating to the "righteous man" in the Septuagint Wis. 4:10-5:22 matches neither the Enoch references in the Bible nor in the Book of Enoch. But the action described in Wis. 4:10-5:22 does match Odysseus of The Odyssey.
Here are my findings in the Septuagint, written before the Christian era. Clearly, these passages show the Homeric influence.
"He pleased God, and was beloved of him: so that living among sinners he was translated. Yea, speedily was he taken away, lest that wickedness should alter his understanding, or deceit beguile his soul. For the bewitching of naughtiness doth obscure things that are honest: and the wandering of concupiscence doth undermine the simple mind. He, being made perfect in a short time, fulfilled a long time: for his soul pleased the Lord: therefore hasted he to take him away from among the wicked." Wis.4:10-14
This passage directly echoes Odysseus being saved by Athena from the clutches of Calypso/Circe and other temptations on his long voyage home.
shall the righteous man stand in great boldness before the
face of such as have afflicted him, and made no account of his labours.
When they see it, they shall be troubled with terrible fear,
and shall be amazed at the strangeness of his salvation, so far beyond
all that they looked for. And they repenting and groaning for anguish of spirit
shall say within themselves,
This was he, whom we had sometimes in derision, and a proverb of reproach: we fools accounted his life madness, and his end to be without honour: how is he numbered among the children of God, and his lot is among the saints!" Wis.5:1-5
This passage also describes Odysseus confronting the suitors, putting fear in their hearts.
My New English Bible states: "...at the sight of him there will be terror and confusion, and they will be beside themselves to see him so unexpectedly safe home." Wis.5:2
Is this not Odysseus returning to his great hall and confronting the suitors?
the righteous live for evermore; their reward also is with the Lord, and care
of them is with the most High. Therefore shall they receive a glorious kingdom,
and a beautiful crown from the Lord's hand: for with his right hand shall he
cover them, and with his arm shall he protect them. He shall take to him his
jealousy for complete armour, and make the creature his weapon for revenge of
his enemies. He shall put on righteousness as a breastplate,
and true judgment instead of an helmet.... Then shall the right aiming
thunderbolts go abroad; and from the clouds, as from a well drawn bow, shall
they fly to the mark." Wis.5:15-19, 21
This passage describes the dispatching of the suitors by Odysseus and Athena. Athena is the only god with direct access to Zeus' thunderbolts. I do not believe there are any references to thunderbolts in the Jewish Old Testament.
"Unto you therefore, O Kings, do I
speak, that ye may learn wisdom, and not fall away...Wisdom
is glorious, and never fadeth away: yea, she is easily seen of them
that love her, and found of such as seek her". Wis.6:9 & 12.
"...she shall lead me soberly in my doings, and preserve me in her power." Wis 9:11
These passages describe Athena, goddess of wisdom and follows closely after the Odyssey passages quoted earlier.
Locating Homer's Odyssey written into Wisdom 4:10-5:22 is a startling new finding, as, according to Google, no scholars have published articles that have made this connection before.
Athena appears in Catholic Church fresco (although labelled otherwise by locals)
The Catholic Church of Maria de Victoria, Ingolstadt, Bavaria, Germany has
an interesting group of frescoes as described by Thomas Schipflinger in his
book SOPHIA-MARIA. A HOLISTIC VISION OF CREATION. Schipflinger states on page
183: "Its frescoes were painted by Cosmas Damien Asam in 1734. The ceiling
fresco in the entrance hall portrays Wisdom sitting on a throne amidst royal
insignia... Depicted as a Queen, Sophia carries a staff and also a scepter in
the form of a snake...The scepter in the form of a snake symbolizes Sophia's
healing and salvation-bringing power (the snake is a symbol of Wisdom and healing)."
[Please note snake with Athena in Parthenon statue- see top]
"The entrance hall fresco represents a kind of "prologue" to the ceiling fresco inside the church... There one sees a beam of light descending from God the Father to a woman dressed like Sophia in the entrance hall painting... From Her another beam descends down to Mary, who is kneeling in assent to the message that She is to be the Mother of God... It is further interesting to note that the beam of light reflected to Mary is in turn reflected by Her down to... Pallas Athena, the Greek goddess of Wisdom..." (see subject fresco below)
Verlag Donau Kurier in his book COSMAS DAMIEN ASAM. MARIA DE VICTORIA. INGOLSTADT
comments on page 105 (translated from German) below a picture of Athena: "Hit
by the holy beam of light: Pallas Athene, Europe..."
The nearby copy reads: "The Jesuit description from 1735 in view of the woman in Pallas' golden armour... She is identified as Pallas by her armour and helmet. Pallas is the goddess of Wisdom, Mary as the seat of Wisdom is also in this respect the saintly Pallas. Pallas and Minerva were, in antiquity and the baroque period, quite often identified with one another. Minerva also represents Wisdom, but also faith, justice, innocence, grace, and devotion to Mary..." (see subject fresco below)
KEY 1735 STATEMENT--"PALLAS IS THE GODDESS OF WISDOM, MARY IS THE SEAT OF WISDOM"
Copyright of "Kurt Scheuerer, Ingolstadt,
Bavaria" and: email@example.com
I believe this 1734 painting also depicts the Duke of Bavaria Charles VII with his 7 year old son Maxmillian III Joseph.
It appears Athena is passing the crown their direction.
25 years later the son was involved in the dedication of the Bavarian Academy. Athena appears again.
"Dedication of volume I of the Proceedings (1763). On the left a
portrait of Elector Maximilian III Joseph; on the right, Pallas Athene
holding the 'heart-shield' (inescutcheon) with the motto 'Tendit ad
aequum' granted to the Academy by the Elector, and, below, the date of
foundation, 28th March 1759."
The Elector in 1759 looks like his father in the 1734 Maria de Victoria painting. This appears on a German web site covering the dedication of The Bavarian Academy in 1759 (see Footnote XX)
Constantine's Holy Spirit was gender neutral, allowing for a feminine third
member of the Trinity--We note in the Council of Nicea 325 CE and
in the 2nd ecumenical Council of Constantinople 381 CE that the Holy Ghost/Holy
Spirit was of neutral gender---here is the 381 CE copy (see footnote 35):
"And in the Holy Spirit, the Lord, the Giver of Life,
Who proceeds from the Father,
Who with the Father and the Son is equally worshipped and glorified,
Who spoke by the Prophets."
Here is the exposition
of the 150 fathers at the 2nd Council 381 CE (see footnote 36):
"And in the Spirit, the holy, the lordly and life-giving one, proceeding forth from the Father, co-worshipped and co-glorified with Father and Son, the one who spoke through the prophets; in one, holy, catholic and apostolic church."
It was not
until 589 CE at the Council of Toledo that the Holy Spirit was defined as masculine
and the filoque clause added. The Eastern Churches did not agree with this change
(see footnote 37):
"We believe in the Holy Spirit, the Lord, the giver of life,
who proceeds from the Father and the Son.
With the Father and the Son He is worshiped and glorified.
He has spoken through the Prophets."
that the Holy Spirit is feminine:
Gospel according to the Hebrews (in Origen, Commentary on John 2:12 and Homily on Jeremiah 15:4)--And if any accept the Gospel of the Hebrews, here the Savior says: "Even so did my mother, the Holy Spirit, take me by one of my hairs, and carry me to the great Mount Tabor." Jerome also records these words in Latin in his commentaries on Micah 7:6, Isaiah 40:9ff., and Ezekiel 16:13. (see footnote 38). Constantine's historian Eusebius in 324 CE explains the Gospel of Hebrews is one of the disputed books but "known to most churchmen." (see footnote 39)
Jesus indicates the Spirit is feminine--- In response to a question from Nicodemus who asked But how is it possible for a man to be born when he is old? Can he enter his mothers womb a second time and be born? -NEB, John III: 4.
Jesus responds: No one can enter the kingdom of God without being born from water and spirit. Flesh can give birth only to flesh; it is spirit that gives birth to spirit. -NEB, John III: 5-6.
But She -the Spirit - the Paraclete whom He-will-send to you- my Father - in
my name - She will teach you every-thing; She will remind you of that which
I have told you.
In the most ancient of the rare Old Syriac copies, the Siniatic Palimpsest (see footnote 40)
in Hebrew, was feminine ( rouach ).--- The Syriac Fathers, in whose language
Spirit was feminine, went so far as to call it our Mother.---The
Seat of Wisdom - Louis Bouyer
"Within Judaism, the Shekinah (or "visible" cloud of the Presence) is a feminine word, thought to be Yahvah's feminine aspect;
therefore, they called the Spirit the "mother". " (see footnote 38)
Ben Zoma, a younger
contemporary of the Apostles, states in the Talmud ( Hagiga 15a )
and the Spirit of God was brooding over the face of the waters like a dove which
broods over her young but does not touch them.
to suggest that Athena was Constantine's Holy Spirit:
Athena represents power & wisdom, features of the Holy Spirit.
The spirit of the Lord shall rest upon him, a spirit of wisdom and understanding, a spirit of counsel and power, a spirit of knowledge and the fear of the Lord-NEB, Isaiah XI: 1,2
...you will receive power when the Holy Spirit comes upon you... -NEB, Acts of Apostles I: 8
Divine Wisdom is the Holy Spirit who "spoke by the prophets" in the Nicene Creed.
(Wisdom helping Noah) ---the earth being drowned with the flood, wisdom again preserved it, and directed the course of the righteous in a piece of wood--- Septuagint Wis. X: 4
(Wisdom helping Jacob) When the righteous fled from his brothers wrath, she guided him in right paths---made him rich in his travels---She defended him from his enemies, and kept him safe from those that lay in wait.- Septuagint, Wis. X : 10-12
(Wisdom helping Joseph) When the righteous was sold, she forsook him not--- she went down with him in the pit---she brought him the sceptre of the kingdom---and gave him perpetual glory. Septuagint X: 13-14
(Wisdom helping Moses) She entered into the soul of the servant of the Lord, and withstood dreadful kings in wonders and signs; rendered to the righteous a reward of their labors, guided them in a marvelous way, and was unto them for a cover by day, and a light of stars in the night season; brought them through the Red sea, and led them through much water: but she drowned their enemies, and cast them up out of the bottom of the deep.- Septuagint, Wisdom X: 16 - 19
Divine Wisdom is the Holy Spirit
St. Irenaeus, Bishop of Lyons, one of the early church fathers, in his great work Against Heresies1 circa A.D.182, wrote ..And that Wisdom also, which is the Spirit, was present with Him , anterior to all creation, He declares by Solomon: God by Wisdom founded the earth, and by understanding hath He established the heaven.By His knowledge the depths burst forth, and the clouds dropped down the dew."
Athena is Divine Wisdom
Jewish-Hellenic Biblical writers in 100 BC wrote the Wisdom texts in Greek in Alexandria, these include Proverbs and the apocraphal book Wisdom of Solomon. These writers sought to fuse Greek allegory into Jewish Old Testament texts.
The Jewish-Hellenic Biblical writers admired the ideas of Plato & Homer. They incorporated Plato's concept of the soul into the wisdom texts (Wis 3: 1-19). This thinking was foreign to the Old Testament and the Jewish resurrection of the body (Dan. 12.2).
They appropriated many of Athena's attributes outlined in the Odyssey (or elsewhere) and labelled them as Divine Wisdom--here are examples:
Wisdom helped to create mankind- "...when he prescribed its limits for the sea and knit together earth's foundations. Then I was at his side each day, his darling and delight, playing in his presence continually, playing on the earth, when he had finished it, while my delight was in mankind." Proverbs 8:29-31
Athena helped to create mankind- "Prometheus is holding a man whom he created; Athena breathes soul into him in the form of a butterfly." Sarcophagos 270 AD, Musee Capitolina--(see footnote 41)
Wisdom Intercessor between God the Father & man- "...who
ever learnt to know thy purposes, unless thou hadst given him wisdom and sent
thy holy spirit down from heaven on high? Thus it was that those on earth were
set upon the right path, and men were taught what pleases thee; thus they were
preserved by wisdom." Wisdom 9: 17- 18
Athena Intercessor between God the Father & man- Athena asks Zeus to help Odysseus: "Olympian Zeus, have you no care for him in your lofty heart?" Odyssey 1: 72. Athena appeals to Zeus on behalf of Odysseus: "Father, son of Cronus, our high and mighty king, now let me ask you a question...tell me the secrets hidden in your mind." Odyssey 24: 522
Wisdom helps & protects you- "Through
me kings are sovereign and governors make just laws. Through me princes act
like princes, from me all rulers on earth derive their nobility."
"Wisdom it was who kept guard over the first father of the human race, when he alone had yet been made..." Wisdom 10:1
Athena helps & protects you- Athena to Odysseus: "Surely I'll stand beside you, not forget you, not when the day arrives for us to do our work." Odyssey 13: 449
Divine Wisdom adept at tactics/strategy- "Wisdom
prevails over strength, knowledge over brute force; for wars are won by skillful
strategy, and victory is the fruit of long planning." Proverbs
Athena & Odysseus discuss tactics/strategy- "Then down they sat by the sacred olive's trunk to plot the death of the high and mighty suitors. The bright eyed goddess Athena led the way..." Odyssey 13: 426
Wisdom's mind knows all things- "For
she knows and understands all things..." Wisdom 9:11
Athena's mind knows all things- Odysseus to Athena: "You know it all." Odyssey 13: 475
Wisdom loves you- "Those
who love me I love...." Proverbs 8:17
Athena loves you- Nestor to Telemachus: "If only the bright-eyed goddess chose to love you just as she lavished care on brave Odysseus...I've never seen the immortals show so much affection as Pallas openly showed him..." Odyssey 3: 247
Wisdom has power- "I have force, I have ability; understanding and power are mine." Proverbs 8: 14
Athena has power- Phantom (Athena) to Penelope: "She has power- Pallas Athena." Odyssey 4: 931. Odysseus wins fight: "thanks to Athena's superhuman power." Odyssey 8: 584
Wisdom provides immortality-
"Through her I shall have immortality,---" Wisdom 8:13
"in kinship with wisdom lies immortality---" Wisdom 8:17
Athena provides immortality-
Athena gifted Diomede with immortality---- (see footnote 42)
"Dionysos is then reborn due to Athena---" (see footnote 43)
Holy Spirit was feminine
Holy Spirit has Athena's traits
Divine Wisdom is the Holy Spirit
Athena is Divine Wisdom
Athena is the Holy Spirit
CONSTANTINE'S TRINITY DOCTRINE INCORPORATED ATHENA AS THE HOLY SPIRIT
[THIS IS A NEW FINDING- NOT LISTED ON GOOGLE]