NEW FINDINGS- 2700-2600 year old texts by Hesiod & Homer link Athena to grace. The same event of spreading grace around the head & neck (as done by Athena in these 2700-2600 yr old texts) is then described as being done by Divine Wisdom in the 2285 yr old Wisdom texts (Athena was goddess of wisdom at this time).
This new finding links Athena to creation and to Divine Wisdom.


700 BC--Hesiod describes how Athena and Hephaestus made the first woman--Pandora. Hesiod describes this event in two of his writings (see below). English translations scramble or leave out some key points. We note that Hesiod lists a name, then an activity, or activities. Athena taught Pandora weaving and placed grace on her head, Aphrodite gave Pandora cruel longing (as you can see, the text below in WORKS AND DAYS is scrambled.):

Hesiod- WORKS AND DAYS- line 65. Text courtesy of Henri Bourneuf of Harvard's Widener Library

Hesiod describes Athena & Hephaestus creating Pandora in his THEOGONY. In this case, Athena places a crown of gold on Pandora's head. The English translation omits "Grace beams forth mightily"--see Greek text below a few lines later.

Hesiod- THEOGONY- lines 577, 584. Text courtesy of Henri Bourneuf of Harvard's Widener Library

600 BC- Homer, when referring to Odysseus, describes how the works of Hephaestus and Pallas Athena have resulted in a man full of grace. Homer credits Athena with shedding additional grace upon Odysseus' head and shoulders.

Homer- THE ODYSSEY- 6.235

In this case, Athena sheds grace on Telemachus:

Homer- THE ODYSSEY- 2.12

Athena sheds additional grace on Odysseus:

Homer- THE ODYSSEY- 8.18

285 BC- The Greek Septuagint picked up the crown of graces from the earlier Hesiod and Homer texts and inserted them in the Wisdom texts. "Thy mother" (see below) is Divine Wisdom. Athena was the Greek goddess of wisdom when this text was written.


285 BC- Here soul and grace are combined, two Athena attributes:


285 BC- Grace is linked to wisdom in this Wisdom text:


Grace (Charis) is a Greek word. We can see how Hesiod and particularly Homer applied the word to Athena. The Christians used Grace (Charis) 147 times in the New Testament, most often to mean "Grace", in some cases "favour".

CONCLUSION---Grace is being given to humans by Athena as noted by Hesiod and Homer in texts ca 600-700 BC. This event was written into the Wisdom texts ca 285 BC.
This new finding links Athena to creation and to Divine Wisdom.